Persea americana is an evergreen tropical tree, native to Central America; this fruit has been cultivated for centuries in most of the tropical areas of the world: in North and South America, in Africa, Australia, Asia, New Zealand and on the Mediterranean coasts. It has dense and dense crown, rounded and erect stem, these are very long-lived trees, which can reach 9-18 meters in height over the years. The foliage is oval, dark green, smooth and shiny, with a waxy appearance; the flowers bloom from the beginning of spring until late summer, they are small, inconspicuous, gathered in racemes that count thousands, of these only some will be pollinated; the long-lasting flowering allows the plant to bear fruit for a prolonged period of time: it matures from summer until the end of autumn. Avocado fruits are drupes, similar to large pears, 10 to 25 cm long, of various colors, from dark green to blackish purple; the peel can be smooth or wrinkled; the flesh is compact and sweet, buttery, light yellow, sometimes light green. Avocados do not ripen when they are attached to the plant, generally they need a few weeks to mature after being harvested. There are hundreds of varieties of avocado, with particularly large or particularly tasty fruits; to encourage pollination in avocado fruit orchards, at least two different varieties are usually planted. Avocados are eaten raw, in salads or sauces, but they are also used to prepare particular recipes of Central American origin.
The plants of American persea they prefer sunny positions; they can withstand brief frosts of slight entity, but they can show signs of suffering already with temperatures below four degrees. It is advisable to grow them in a place protected from frost and cold wind, which could cause the loss of fruit. Avocados are also grown as potted houseplants, in this case remember to avoid excess watering and to vaporize the foliage often.
They can easily withstand drought; the young specimens are watered frequently, avoiding excesses and stagnant water. They are plants used to growing in places with very high temperatures and do not like the water stagnation that can easily lead to the onset of rot.
The persea america specimens adapt quite well to any soil, provided it is well drained; they do not like excessively acidic or clayey soils, preferring loose and fairly rich in organic matter so as to provide all the nourishment necessary so that the plant grows healthy and lush.
It generally occurs by seed; the large seeds are found inside the fruit, and have a fairly short germination capacity. Plants of commercial interest are propagated by practicing grafts, since the plants produced by seed do not always produce fruits identical to those of the mother plant.
Avocado - Persea americana: Pests and diseases
They fear root rot and the development of molds or fungi near the collar, favored by excess watering and stagnant water; in cultivation they are often attacked by defoliators and fruit flies.