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Evergreen tree, native to southern Asia, now naturalized in most of the warm areas of the world, from Australia to Latin America, from Africa to the hottest areas of the Mediterranean. It has a fairly rapid development, and within a few years it can reach 20-25 m in height, with a short stem and an enlarged and rounded crown; the young shoots are orange or pink in color, the leaves are dark green, shiny and slightly leathery, lanceolate or oval, up to 20-25 cm long. At the end of winter or early spring they produce large terminal panicles, consisting of innumerable small white-orange or rosy flowers; the flowers follow small oval fruits, which develop over a period of several months, making the stems that bear them arcuate downwards, gathered in clusters. The fruits of the mango are varied in color, from yellowish green, to red green, up to yellow, orange, red; also the size depends on the cultivar, it goes from 300-400 g up to the varieties with fruit grains that can reach 2 kg per single fruit. The pulp is yellow, quite fibrous and compact, very juicy and sweet in the ripe fruits, it is sour in the still green fruits, it is consumed after having deprived the fruits of the thick skin; in general the mangoes are consumed when the pulp becomes quite yielding, although having a more pleasant taste if consumed as soon as picked, they are widespread on markets all over the world, where in general they reach immature, to then mature over time. Mangoes are the most cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, for this reason there are hundreds of cultivars and hybrids; the most widespread varieties have small fruits, with yellow and slightly fibrous pulp; however, there are varieties with compact flesh and larger fruits. Mangoes are also used to prepare various types of jams or cakes; in Asia there are many recipes based on mango, sweet and savory. Since the mangoes are grown in most of the globe it is possible to find them on the market practically all year long. The botanical name is Mangifera indica.
Mangifera indica plants are grown in a sunny, or partially shady, place; they can also be cultivated in places where the winters are quite harsh, as long as the frosts are drinkable and of slight entity, in this case however they generally do not bear fruit and have a very reduced development, remaining the size of large shrubs. The minimum recommended temperature is 5-7 ° C.
Generally they need regular watering, but only if the soil is dry, avoiding excesses and winter watering; the varieties originating in the Philippines generally need more watering, preferring a more humid climate. These plants can also be grown in pots in the apartment; in this case we water only when the soil is dry, all year round.
The specimens of Mangifera indica prefer rich and deep soils, where they can easily sink their root system; to obtain healthy and vigorous trees it is necessary to place them in a very well drained soil.
Inside the Mangifera indica fruits there is a large flat seed, from which it is possible to sprout a new plant if it is intended to grow it in an apartment; the fruit varieties, on the other hand, are generally grafted onto wild rootstock, because the plants obtained from seed do not always produce fruits identical to those of the mother plant. Cuttings and layering are usually unlikely to succeed.
Mango - Mangifera indicates: Parasites and diseases
The orchards cultivated with mangoes are often attacked by pests that feed on the foliage and various fruit flies. As for the specimens grown as ornamental plants, they can occasionally be attacked by aphids or mites.