Chaenomeles is represented by four species that are found in Japan and China. The fruits of the plant look like apples.
The plant blooms with red or orange flowers, which are located in a single way. In hot and dry summers, this procedure should be performed regularly. With proper care, this species can live up to sixty years.
- Distinctive features of the Japanese Chaenomeles
- Planting and caring for the plant
- How to grow planting material?
- Chaenomeles and wood lice
Distinctive features of the Japanese Chaenomeles
The most popular species is the Japanese Henomeles. This plant is especially appreciated by amateur gardeners, has various varieties and hybrids. The main advantages of growing this type of plant are:
- Long flowering period
- The ability to get fruits with excellent flavoring properties
- Benefit for health
- Low susceptibility to attack by microorganisms
The shrub has dense foliage that can reach heights of up to three meters. Young foliage is bronze colored, while older foliage acquires a dark green color over time. The flowers are large, can reach a diameter of five centimeters. In our country, the plant blooms in late spring, before the leaves open.
The opening of the buds occurs in stages, so the duration of flowering is about one month. The fruits of the plant can be eaten and are yellow with green blotches. Ripening of berries occurs in mid-autumn. Pollination of the plant occurs in a cross way with the involvement of bees.
The growth of the species is slow, in a year the shoots increase in length up to five centimeters. If the plant grows on fertile soil, in a well-lit area, then it will grow more intensively. Chaenomeles accepts haircuts well and is resistant to severe frosts. The soils from which the buds bloom are at a close distance to the ground, so the plant is minimally damaged and blooms for a long time.
The undoubted advantage of the plant is flowering in the early period, so it is important to use it for decorating sidewalks, curbs and creating hedges. The plant looks spectacular both in single growth and in group.
The fruits of the plant are widely used in the food and confectionery industries. They are used as constituent elements of products such as jelly, jam, compotes, pastilles and many others. Their addition gives the products a specific and rich taste with a pleasant aroma. In addition, the fruit is essential for the production of citric acid, vinegar.
Varieties and hybrids are well-known in which flowers have an unusual color - white, bright red, white with admixtures of pink stripes, yellow, orange and many others.
Planting and caring for the plant
The shrub can grow on soils with a different technical composition, however, they feel most comfortable in soils with a low acidity level. When choosing a place for landing, you should pay attention to its illumination. With low light access, seedlings grow slowly.
Planting seedlings should be carried out in the spring or autumn season, when weather conditions permit. The gap between rows of shrubs should not be less than two or two and a half meters. Seedlings should be spaced 0.5 meters apart, seedlings from 1 to 1.5 meters. The plant bears a large number of fruits by the third year of life, and the maximum fruiting peak occurs after five or seven years.
Before planting a plant, organic and mineral fertilizers must be applied to the soil. Subsequently, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with substances containing nitrogen every three or four years. Fertilizer is applied in spring, while loosening the soil. It is also periodically necessary to feed the plant with compost or manure. Optimally, in the form of organic fertilizer, poultry manure is suitable.
Every 12-15 years, the plant must be cut, giving it a certain shape. The crown should be formed in such a way that the plant receives uniform illumination. All dry and damaged branches are removed. A well-formed shrub must have 10 to 15 well-developed branches. The plant is resistant to attack by pests and diseases.
In the middle zone, it is important to breed such plant varieties as Nikolai, Citrine, Vitamin, Kalif, Nika. You can also grow varieties of imported selection of Rubra and Umbilicata, Toyo Nishiki, Belgian Merlozi and many others. All varieties have a lot of advantages, so you need to choose them depending on the purpose of growing.
How to grow planting material?
Planting material is made from seeds that ripen in mid or late autumn. In order for the plants to germinate, a stratification procedure is required. If the sowing of seeds should take place in the spring season, then they are placed in the refrigerator. They are buried in the sand and stored there for two months.
The germination rate is quite high. The first shoots appear quickly. Sowing of seeds is carried out in spring or autumn. The seeds are immersed to a depth of 20-25 centimeters, after which the soil is carefully leveled. Sowing is carried out in grooves with a small amount of humus or compost. In this case, a strict gap between the grooves of 50-60 centimeters must be observed.
After the seeds are planted, the soil is covered with soil, watered and sprinkled on top with humus or peat. The first shoots appear in the middle of spring. If the seeds are planted correctly, then the seedlings will be friendly. As soon as three or four leaves have formed, the gatherings need to be removed from closely planted plants.
The gap between plants after such a procedure, the gap between seedlings should not exceed 15 centimeters. Chaenomeles also propagates using cuttings, layering or root suckers. Thus, reproduction is easy if certain rules are followed.
Chaenomeles and wood lice
The plant prefers relatively dry soils and does not tolerate stagnant water. In addition, when growing a plant, it is necessary to control the humidity of the air. In order to cope with stagnant water, the shrub must be planted on a small mound, slightly deepening the root collar.
If wood lice grows around the seedling, and at the same time it is not removed in a timely manner, then the plant begins to feel uncomfortable. If this plant lives next to a shrub, then it experiences high humidity, as a result of which it may die. If the plant grows in high humidity, then over time, a disease such as rotting of the root neck may appear.
This ailment is of viral origin and it is difficult to get rid of its appearance. In the root area, the fermentation process begins, then the bark gradually begins to flake off and rot passes into the tissue structure of the trunk. In the presence of groundwater, the plant must be planted on a mound or covered with drainage. The neck of the root after the soil has settled should not be below one centimeter.
The fruits of the plant are in demand among the population, as they contain a large number of useful trace elements. These substances have a beneficial effect on human life, boosting the immune system.
If you regularly eat the fruits, then the body's resistance increases, viruses and bacteria rarely attack it. In addition, the fruits help to cope with allergies and normalize metabolism. And the pulp and extract are indispensable in the preservation and processing of culinary products.
See all about chaenomeles in the video: