The production of vegetables in winter requires well-equipped greenhouses with heating and well-organized lighting. Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter is no exception. In addition to the technical arrangement of heated greenhouses, it will be necessary to choose the right assortment of tomatoes for greenhouses and make a high-quality soil mixture.
- Tomato varieties for winter greenhouses
- Greenhouse soil preparation
- Growing tomato seedlings for winter greenhouses
- Transplanting seedlings to a garden bed in a greenhouse, fruiting
Tomato varieties for winter greenhouses
Growing vegetables in heated greenhouses is an expensive process. In order for material costs to turn into a qualitative and quantitative tomato crop, the greenhouse area must be used as efficiently as possible.
This can be done using not only horizontal beds, but also a vertical volume. To maximize the use of even a small greenhouse, you can select varieties of tomatoes with unlimited vertical growth. Such tomatoes are called indeterminate.
Currently, vegetable growers actively use more than a hundred varieties and hybrids for winter cultivation. First of all, you should pay attention to the following foreign breeding hybrids:
- President F 1, tomatoes ripen on average 95 days after germination. The bushes are powerful, the tomatoes are bright, red, versatile. Fruit weight up to 200 grams, a fruitful hybrid, from 1 sq. m you can get more than 20 kg of products.
- Anabel F 1, vigorous bushes, yield up to 22 kg per sq. meters, fruits are pristine with elastic tasty pulp, good presentation.
- Raisa F 1, one of the fruitful hybrids, gives up to 24 kg of tomatoes per sq. meters, the fruits are round, red, weighing up to 120 g, ripen in 100 days. The hybrid is suitable for industrial cultivation of tomatoes in winter greenhouses.
Among domestic hybrids, the following deserve attention:
- Vasilievna F 1
- Divo F 1
- Eupator F 1
- Dobrun F 1
The acquisition of seed is a very crucial moment. This is best done in specialized stores, paying attention to the expiration date of the seeds. After two years of storage, the germination of tomatoes decreases.
The soil in greenhouses for growing vegetables in winter requires special preparation.
Greenhouse soil preparation
As a rule, the yield of tomatoes indoors is much higher than outdoors. Consequently, a large load falls on the soil, and the consumption of nutrient reserves increases.
Considering that the bulk of the roots of tomato bushes grow to a depth of 30 - 35 cm, then a layer of soil in the greenhouse is needed up to 40 cm thick. It is advisable to harvest the soil from virgin lands.
The next important point is the enrichment of the land with organic matter. Its total amount must be at least 1/5 of the part. For this, rotted sawdust, foliage, mature humus and compost are suitable. Also, to obtain vermicompost, you can use a special type of earthworms - the California red worm. One family will allow you to regularly enrich the soil with organic matter. The "work" of these worms also increases the porosity of the soil.
In order to disinfect the soil in the greenhouse and reduce the number of larvae of various insects that can massively breed in moist soil, it is advisable to use the drug Batolin - T.
The treatment with the biological product "Nematofagin" will also have a positive effect on the yield; it will save future plantings from the nematode. When digging up the soil in the greenhouse, you can use the fumigation of the room with sulfur sticks.
Growing tomato seedlings for winter greenhouses
If the seedling period falls on September - October, then the seedlings will need more additional lighting, since at this time the daylight hours are significantly reduced. If sowing tomato seeds is planned for the end of November - December, then here the main plant growth will occur in January - February, when daylight hours increase and costs associated with additional lighting can be reduced.
For sowing tomato seeds for seedlings, it is most convenient to use special cassettes - seedlings or peat tablets. As soon as the seeds begin to germinate on the fifth or seventh day, the seedlings will need additional lighting. In the early days, it is advisable to highlight the seedlings for 24 hours, gradually reducing this time to 16 - 12 hours.
Also at this time, seedlings need a greater concentration of carbon dioxide. In the industrial production of vegetables, special generators are used; in small greenhouses, you can put a container with fresh manure filled with water. When this mixture ferments, carbon dioxide will be released.
The development of tomatoes depends on the quality and quantity of roots, so the seedlings need to be picked. At the stage of appearance of a real leaf, seedlings dive into separate pots. To increase root formation, the stem is bent and the roots are, as it were, "upside down", after which everything is covered with soil.
At the age of 20 days, the seedlings begin to grow intensively and need additional feeding. For this, a nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium mixture diluted with water is suitable. The second time it should be brought in when there are already four true leaves on the seedlings. As soon as the seedlings have at least five to six true leaves, it is time to plant them in the beds of the winter greenhouse.
Transplanting seedlings to a garden bed in a greenhouse, fruiting
For planting in the ground, you will need to make holes and pour them abundantly with water at the rate of 0.5 - 0.8 liters of water per plant. You can also add a few spoons of humus to the hole, obtained as a result of the work of California worms. The distance between adjacent holes and between rows should be at least 50 cm, and when growing varieties with powerful stems - up to 70 cm.
The use of indeterminate varieties of tomatoes for growing in winter in greenhouses requires their obligatory garter and removal of stepchildren. To fix the stem on the trellis, it is convenient to use special clips, this greatly facilitates the removal and removal of the tops after the end of fruiting.
Air access to the root system is important for winter cultivation in a greenhouse; it is required to remove all lower leaves and regularly weed out the weeds while loosening the soil.
To increase the number of ovaries will help spraying flowers with a special preparation - a stimulator of fruit formation, such as "Tomaton". This can be done with a simple brush or a hand sprayer.
At the end of winter, it is necessary to protect the tomato ovary from sunburn, creating a shade on especially sunny days.
In addition to growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in traditional beds, modern growing methods such as aeroponics and hydroponics can be used. This not only increases the yield, but also eliminates the need to prepare the soil and treat the beds from weeds and insects.
Tomatoes can be grown in winter not only for the needs of your family, but also used as small-scale production of vegetables for sale to the population. Given the modern assortment of prefabricated greenhouses, this will not be so difficult to do.
Greenhouse technology for growing tomatoes on video: