Tomatoes are a highly productive crop. Tomatoes can be grown both outdoors and in a sheltered place such as a greenhouse. The cultivation process begins with planting seeds first in closed ground, after which the ready-made seedlings are planted in an open area.
- Soil features
- Selecting the required components
- Soil disinfection
- Planting seeds
- Tomato care
The entire preparation process must begin in the autumn period of time - this is the best time to make the soil as favorable as possible for planting tomatoes. Tomatoes grow only in a sunny place that is reliably protected from gusty and cold winds. As for the soil, a favorable option is sandy loam soils, the acidity level of which does not exceed 6.5 pH.
If there are beds in the garden on which cabbage or cucumbers previously grew, then tomatoes can be placed in this soil, since during the growth of previous vegetables, the necessary amount of useful microelements that have a beneficial effect on the development of tomatoes was deposited in the soil.
Autumn preparation includes the process of digging all the beds, as well as applying the required amount of fertilizer - this can be compost or humus. In the spring, right before planting tomatoes in open ground, it is advisable to add mineral fertilizers to it.
Selecting the required components
In order to have a really good harvest, you cannot plant seeds directly in the soil taken from the garden. The main secret of tasty and juicy tomatoes lies in properly prepared soil, and each gardener can carry out this whole process on his own, since there are no difficulties in this.
The main components for the soil:
- Baking powder
- Leaf land
The basis of humus is rotted manure or humus from plants. This component is necessary to saturate the soil with a number of micronutrients, which creates favorable conditions for growing almost any garden crop.
Peat is necessary to provide the soil with the required amount of moisture, and the soil becomes looser.
River sand of a coarse-grained type gives the soil a good level of porosity, due to which a sufficient amount of air, moisture and oxygen penetrates to the roots of plants. Sawdust can be used together with river sand and peat, but they must first be treated with boiling water.
The soil with leafy soil has a high degree of friability, but its nutrient content is at a minimum, so you should not use this soil as the main soil for growing tomatoes. It gives good results when combined with other types of soil.
Leafy land can be found in an area with a large number of deciduous trees. But it is not worth using the soil under an oak, chestnut or willow for mixing purposes, since this soil is oversaturated with tannins, which will only slow down the growth and development of tomatoes on the site.
Disinfection is an important soil preparation process, the essence of which is to remove all harmful microorganisms from the soil. Today, you can use a wide variety of purposes for disinfection, but the most effective is soil freezing.
If it is not possible to carry out freezing, then you can use disinfectants or steam. The first method is to use a solution of potassium permanganate. Dissolve 3 g of the substance in 10 liters of warm water, water the soil, in addition, you can still use drugs that prevent the development of the fungus.
The second method is to place the seedling soil in a cloth bag or in a container that has a lot of holes. All this must be left to steam for 45 minutes.
You can ignite the earth in the oven, but then not only harmful microbes will disappear, but also necessary microorganisms. After the process of disinfecting the earth is over, you can put tomato seeds in the resulting mixture.
The change, which has already given small sprouts, must be planted in prepared soil by 0.5 cm. The earth is in a box, and the box with seeds after planting should be covered with plastic or glass, put the box in a warm place.
The first seedlings of tomatoes should appear already on the 3rd day. But if you took seed material of foreign origin or a hybrid type, sprouts may appear in a week. If the seeds have been stored for a long time, then they are distinguished by delayed germination and further development.
The optimum temperature for the emergence of sprouts is +20 ... + 25 ° С, at night +8 ... + 12 ° С. Water the seedlings abundantly, but rarely. After the first entrances appear, after a while they can be planted in open ground, but it is best that at least for the first time they grow in a greenhouse.
In order for the tomatoes to develop well and give an excellent harvest, the soil must be loosened regularly, fed with mineral fertilizers and regular watering must be ensured. During the time when the plant is at the budding stage, stimulating substances can be used for spraying, for example, a solution of baking soda or boric acid.
In addition, it will be nice to add a small amount of ash under each bush, after which the soil is thoroughly loosened and watered abundantly. After 2-3 weeks, you can additionally treat the soil with a solution of copper sulfate, which has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of tomatoes.
As soon as the first flowers appear on the plant, care must be taken to ensure that the greenhouse is thoroughly ventilated. Even when the weather is cool outside, you still need to provide the tomatoes with regular ventilation.
In the event that tomato flowers began to crumble in cloudy and cold weather, this indicates poor development and excessive moisture. In order to correct the current situation, it is necessary to sprinkle the plant with a weak solution of boric acid.
Useful video about preparing the soil for growing tomatoes: