The vineyard requires careful maintenance, only in this case you can get a rich harvest. Particular attention should be paid to pruning the grapes. Pruning is an important agricultural technique on which the fruiting and safety of the vine depends.
- Why prune your vineyard for the winter
- How to carry out the procedure correctly
- Vine pruning methods
- Recommendations for beginners
Why prune your vineyard for the winter
The grape is a perennial vine that, with proper care, is capable of producing high yields. There are a large number of buds on the vine, from which fruit clusters are formed over time. If you do not prune and carry out it incorrectly, the frost resistance of the vine decreases, the berries become small, and there may be no harvest at all.
Vineyard pruning is performed to increase yields, improve the taste of berries. In addition, thanks to this procedure, you can increase the size of the brush, adjust the growth of the root. Pruning speeds up the ripening of the berries and makes it easier to care for the bush. Pruning will also help to increase the frost resistance of the vines. This procedure is performed in the fall so that the bush does not suffer from frost.
How to carry out the procedure correctly
Pruning vines should be done in the fall before hiding for the winter. You should know that the vine that ripens last year brings the harvest, and it makes no sense to carry out the procedure of a recently planted bush. You need to prune a young bush only next year. During the season, the vine will get stronger and grow green mass. To speed up the process, you need to regularly water and feed the young vineyard.
Pruning is done in two steps. At the first stage, the procedure is performed in the fall, where 2/3 of the total length is removed. This shortening helps to develop properly and maintain shape. Pruning is carried out after collecting all the bunches. Weak shoots are removed. Further pruning is carried out after all the leaves have fallen at a temperature of at least 3 degrees.
Do not cut too much. This is important to consider, because otherwise it can lead to freezing of the bush. The next stage takes place in the spring. At this time, it is easy to determine how the bush suffered from frost.
All dried, frozen and weakened shoots are cut off. In the summer, the plant will recover after winter. You will need a pruner to trim the vines. It is important that the blade of the tool is clean and sharp, otherwise the shoots can be injured. Thick, weak, dry and thin branches should be removed. If necessary, you can remove several kidneys so that the load is evenly distributed.
Trimming the lower shoot, which is located on the outside of the trunk sleeve, is necessary to obtain a tasty harvest. In this case, several eyes should remain.At the final stage, you need to form a fruit arrow. To do this, cut off the shoot, which is located on the other side of the sleeve a little higher.
At least 6-8 eyes should be left. This is done in the third year of life. After pruning, you need to prepare the shrub for winter. Remove the branches from the trellises and lay them according to the growth of the vine. Then secure and cover with foil.
Vine pruning methods
There are 2 ways to form a vineyard bush:
- Stamp method
- Stampless method
The stem of the vineyard that connects to the root system is called the stem. In height, it can reach more than 5 meters. When pruning with the standard method, you should shorten the shoots located at the surface of the earth. All branches must have 3 buds.
Cut off the remaining processes. Then two shoots are divided into main and reserve, to replace the main one in case of freezing. This pruning method is used for cold regions. When pruning with a standard method, it is necessary to leave 2 well-developed shoots at the base, and break the weak and underdeveloped ones. Cut the remaining shoots to the length of the matured wood.
A ripe shoot will be indicated by a light chestnut shade of the bark. The main task of the stab-free trimming is to artificially form four bush arms. This method is recommended for use in regions with a warm climate, where it is not at all necessary to cover a bush for the winter. It is necessary to choose a method of forming a bush taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region.
Recommendations for beginners
When trimming several times, you can remember how and in what time frame the procedure is performed. Novice winegrowers need to adhere to some rules to get a high yield.
- Shoots should be removed only from one side of the bush.
- The cut should be smooth and preferably performed on the back of the shoot, which is facing the middle. So they will grow better. If the wounds are located on different sides, then this makes it difficult for sap flow. As a result, a decrease in yield is observed.
When pruning a young vine in the fall, the plant will not be able to overwinter. Therefore, for the winter, you need to leave the vineyard along with its shoots. With the onset of spring, all weak and dead shoots can be easily removed. Vineyard pruning is a difficult and painstaking job that requires compliance with all the rules. This is the only way to avoid damage to the vineyards on the bushes and increase the amount of harvest.
Video about simple grape pruning: