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Cherries in the garden, what you need to know about cherries, planting and caring for them


Cherry is a wonderful plant that, with its appearance, evokes positive emotions in people, it is not for nothing that poets and writers love to use the image of a blossoming and fruiting cherry in their work so much. Cherries are also loved by gardeners. It remains to figure out what kind of cherries are, how finicky the cherry is, planting and caring for it.

Content:

  • Common cherry, description
  • What you need to know about cherries when choosing them for the garden
  • Placing cherries in the garden
  • Planting and caring for cherries

Common cherry, description

In the botanical classification, cherry is a subgenus of Plum, from the Pink family. According to its characteristics, the subgenus cherry differs from other close relatives of plum and apricot primarily in its flowers and fruits. All plants of the subgenus Cherry can be divided into two sections, Lavrovishnya or bird cherry and Cherry itself, which includes bird cherry or sweet cherry and ordinary or garden cherry, from which almost all cultivars are obtained. In total, the subgenus has more than 60 species.

Common cherry in culture was already known for eight thousand years BC. Presumably she is a product of natural hybridization. The parental forms were, most likely, cherry or bird cherry and steppe and shrub cherries. This could have happened where these plants have existed for thousands of years:

  • on the Balkan Peninsula
  • in the area of ​​the Dniester river
  • in the Caucasus

The first mentions of cherries on the territory of modern Russia date back to the 10th century, since about the 15th century they have been widespread enough. Already in the XVII-XVIII cherry trees moved far to the north and grew even on Valaam. Since that time, cherry has been one of the most beloved crops among the population of Russia; it is respected by both gardeners and housewives. In appearance, all garden cherries can be divided into two groups:

  • bush cherries, no higher than three meters
  • tree cherries, up to eight meters

Typically, bush cherries begin to bear fruit 3 to 4 years after planting, while treelike cherries begin to yield a year or two later. The leaves are petiolate, from 3 cm to 8 cm long, green. The edge of the sheet plate is serrated. The flowers open at the same time as the leaves. All flowers have petioles on average about 4 cm in length. They are white, gathered in small umbrellas.

The fruit is a real spherical drupe with sour or sweet-sour pulp. The stone is rounded, has a lateral seam. The diameter of the fruit with pulp is about cm. Cherry wood is used for the manufacture of furniture and decorative items. Common cherry varieties are common in industrial and amateur horticulture.

What you need to know about cherries when choosing them for the garden

There are cherry trees in almost every garden. They grow well in any climatic conditions, except for deserts and the extreme north. In the conditions of the garden, bush cherry varieties grow up to 15 - 18 years old, tree-like ones - up to 30 years. All varietal cherries can be divided according to the taste and appearance of the fruit:

  • morerels or griots
  • amoreli

The first group includes cherries with dark colored fruits. The color of the fruit sometimes appears almost black. Griot juice is also dark, sour or sweet-sour to taste. Amorelis have pink and light pink fruits, their juice is colorless, and the taste is sweeter. The color of the leaves is light green.

In addition, cherry varieties can be self-fertile, partially self-fertile and self-fertile. In the first two cases, you need to have at least two cherry trees of different varieties in the garden. When choosing a pollinator variety, it is important to focus on the time of flowering and fruiting, they must coincide with the main variety. For many common varieties, the Vladimirskaya cherry variety is the pollinator. Self-fertile varieties include:

  • Bolotovskaya
  • Youth
  • Zhukovskaya
  • Amorel
  • Kent

Partially self-fertile:

  • Competitor
  • Vladimirskaya
  • Dessert Morozova
  • Ryazanochka
  • Nizhnekamsk
  • Mtsenskaya

To self-infertile:

  • Lyusinovskaya
  • Moscow griot
  • Lebedyanskaya
  • Morozovka
  • Livenekal

Separately, it should be said that cherry quite easily forms hybrids with closely related plants, cherry and bird cherry. The first were named duques, the second - cerapaduses. Sometimes, where cherries grow poorly or are strongly affected by diseases, including coccomycosis, it makes sense to plant a hybrid cherry variety.

Placing cherries in the garden

Cherries grow well on neutral soils. Even on slightly acidic soils, plants will grow poorly, and on acidic soils they can die completely. In the event that all the soils on the site are acidic, then at least six months in advance, lime must be added to the site selected for the cherries, after which everything must be dug up. On heavy acidic clay soils, the rate of lime application is about 800 g per square meter, on acidic sandy loam soils, 500 g per square meter will be enough. m.

According to the mechanical composition, it is better to choose loamy and sandy loam soils. The plant is demanding on sunlight. It is best to place cherries on well-lit, gentle, south-facing slopes.

However, there is a threat of getting sunburn during the dormant period, when at external negative temperatures under the bright sun, the bark of the tree heats up sharply. To protect against sunburn, from the end of February, a board of the appropriate size can be installed on the sunny side.

Moisture and watering requirement

The close occurrence of groundwater and stagnant water is detrimental to cherry plantings. The plant is drought-resistant, but requires watering in the year of planting and in dry summers, cherries need to be watered during the growth of the ovary, three weeks before harvest and in the fall, when the leaves begin to fall.

Most cherry varieties can withstand temperatures down to -25 degrees. However, at lower values, flower buds die by 85 - 90% in many varieties. In addition, cherries are afraid of strong winds in winter, even at -10, cherries can dry out. If all the conditions are met and the correct planting, the cherry will grow and develop quite successfully, and errors can lead to early death of the plant.

Planting and caring for cherries

Cherries reproduce:

  • seedlings
  • coppice saplings
  • grafted seedlings
  • green cuttings

Growing seedlings from a bone is quite simple. The seeds are collected, washed and stratified in the bottom drawer of the refrigerator. You can plant it both in pots and immediately to a permanent place. You can also use those plants that have scattered on their own. In amateur gardening, it is better to use grafted or coppice seedlings one year old and about 0.8 m in size or two years old about 1.1 m in size.

When planting in spring, it is advisable to apply manure and mineral fertilizers for deep digging in the fall. For planting, you need to prepare the landing pit in advance. If fertilizers have not been applied to the site since autumn, then they must be added when planting directly into the pit, except for lime and nitrogen fertilizers, they will burn the roots. The size of the hole should correspond to the root of the cherry seedling, but it cannot be less than 50 cm deep and the same width.

The distance between the pits is not less than 2.5 - 3 m, cherries of the same variety are planted in one row, the distance between the rows is not less than 2.0 m. If necessary, rotted compost is added to the bottom of the pit. You can add phosphorus - potassium fertilizer in the amount of 15-20 g and mix it with the ground. Wood ash will not damage the seedling, 0.9 - 1.0 kg will suffice.

Place the seedling on the bottom of the hole and cover the roots with soil so that the root collar is above the ground. Make a roller of soil around the trunk. After planting, the cherry seedling needs to be watered, two buckets of water that has settled in the sun are enough. In the first year of life, the plant needs to be watered about once every 10 days. In the first three years, the seedling is subjected to formative pruning, from 5 to 6 years of age - sanitary and rejuvenating.

It is important to carry out pest and disease control. The most dangerous disease is coccomycosis; for prevention, you need to remove plant residues under the cherries, and after harvesting and in early spring, treat the trunks with Bordeaux liquid. In addition, it is better to pre-target varieties that are resistant to this disease.

The following insects parasitize cherries:

  • cherry leaf roll
  • cherry moth
  • cherry elephant

You can fight pests with infusions of tomato or potato tops. From chemical agents, you can use the actelik agent according to the instructions. Although it takes some effort to cultivate cherries, it is well worth it to find a place in the garden.

Recommendations for those who wish to plant cherries:


Watch the video: How to Plant Cherry Trees: Easy Fruit Planting Guide (December 2021).