There are plants that are so common and familiar that almost no one pays attention to them. Timothy grass belongs to such plants, which, at first glance, seems to be a completely useless weed. We will try to figure out whether this is so.
- Timofeyevka, botanical description of the plant
- Timothy meadow, the value of culture and application
- How to grow timothy
Timofeyevka, botanical description of the plant
Timothy grass is a genus of plants from the Cereal family. It is found in all geographical areas of Europe. It also exists in Africa. Immigrants were introduced to the Australian and American continents. There is a whole legend about how the Timothy came to America that an American newlywed named Timothy Hanson brought her from the French city of Bordeaux, where, while on business, he managed to choose a bride for himself.
Walking with his beloved, the farmer saw a grain, the ear of which was dense and hard as a stick, collecting the seeds, he took them with the bride to America. After a short time, almost all American cows were chewing timothy hay. The habitual habitats of the grass are forests, steppes, and mountainous regions. Most often, timothy is a perennial herb. It has several names, the most common:
- stick insect
The root system of the plant is powerful, well developed. The roots are numerous, form a good dense lobe, penetrating to almost a meter depth. Stems are straight, hollow inside, cylindrical in shape. They grow vertically upward. Reach up to 100 cm in height. Form a loose bush. Timothy grass bushes are formed by three types of shoots:
- shortened, consisting of leaves collected in a bunch
- vegetative, normal length, without inflorescences
- generative, with inflorescence at the top
The leaves of Timothy are flat, narrow, from 0.5 cm to 0.9 cm wide, rather rigid, elongated, up to 40 cm in length, the edges of the leaves hang down. Form a socket. The flowers are collected in a cylindrical inflorescence up to 12 cm long Timothy inflorescence is called sultan. The spikelets grow together with the main axis, so the timothy sultan is quite tough. The flowers at the top of the inflorescence are the first to open. Each sultan blooms for 4 to 7 days.
Fruits are very small caryopsis. A thousand seeds weigh less than one gram. The growing season begins in early April almost immediately after the snow melts. The plant blooms after two months.
The fruits ripen three months after the ground shoots grow back in the spring. Shoots die off at the end of the growing season, in fact, they live for one season. The plant is characterized by high winter hardiness and frost resistance. Poorly tolerates prolonged waterlogging and severe drought. The genus includes about 30 species. About 11 species grow in natural conditions on the territory of Russia. The most important species is meadow timothy.
Timothy meadow, the value of culture and application
In economic activity, timothy is used in two main directions:
- as a fodder crop
- lawn and ornamental grass
- Timothy as a forage crop
Timothy meadow belongs to good-quality forage crops. It is widely used as a green top dressing; it is also harvested not only for hay, but also for silage. Protein content up to 14%. Up to 50% of the protein is assimilated by animals. The yield of green mass is up to 200 c / ha. The yield of dry hay is from 20 to 120 kg / ha. The fodder quality is improved by the joint cultivation of timothy with red clover and other legumes.
Video about the correct planting of timothy under the lawn:
Forage varieties are bred:
- Lyupinetsky 1
- Maiskaya 1
- Marusinskaya 297
- Vita 1
Timothy is mowed for fodder at the earing stage. Harvesting begins at the stage of full maturity.
Timothy in landscaping
In landscaping, timothy is used as a lawn grass. In addition to meadow timothy, small timothy is also used. This type of timothy is capable of forming a dense turf, the ground part is resistant to trampling and abrasion.
Both crops are used to create lawns. Timothy meadow does not tolerate a low haircut. She most often sowed the area allocated for an ordinary lawn. Lesser timothy has a narrower leaf and a more decorative appearance. Tolerates low haircuts well. Timothy is propagated by seeds.
How to grow timothy
When making a choice in favor of meadow timothy, it is important not to forget that this culture is photophilous, but it does not tolerate prolonged drought very well. Feels good on clay, sandy loam and loamy soils with medium acidity. Tolerates saline soils. Reacts well to the introduction of copper sulfate. Timothy as a monoculture is sown at a rate of about 10 kg per hectare.
If the grass will be sown in a mixture with clover, fescue and other crops, then 4 - 5 kg per hectare is enough. Sow it in the spring, with the preliminary introduction of complex fertilizer before sowing. The plant is responsive to nitrogen content. Sowing is carried out in grooves up to 2 cm deep. It is important to remember that a dry spring has a detrimental effect on seedlings.
As it grows, drought resistance becomes somewhat higher, but still a lack of moisture, as well as its excess, can destroy crops. In all other respects, the plant is unpretentious and is suitable not only as a fodder and lawn crop, but also as a precursor for most cereals and other crops.