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Potatoes are the most common root vegetable grown in almost every vegetable garden. It often happens that the correct planting, the selection of the soil and the correct planting process play an important role in obtaining the final result.
- How to choose potato seeds
- How to prepare the soil for planting
- Preparation of planting material
- How to plant potatoes correctly?
- How to cut potatoes for planting
How to choose potato seeds
To get a good harvest, you first need to choose the right seeds. The harvesting of potato seeds should be done even during the harvest. The best time to select seed potatoes is autumn. Potatoes for planting should be chosen from those bushes that gave the best harvest. The size of the tubers for seed potatoes should be about five centimeters. Experienced gardeners claim that the larger the tubers, the better the harvest will be.
In addition to the usual seed potatoes, you can plant sprouted eyes, or cut potatoes. Once the cut potatoes are sun-dried and powdered with ash, they can yield a very good harvest. To achieve these results, planting must be done in humid and warm weather. Prolonged rain and cold will cause the cut potatoes to rot.
If seed potatoes are to be bought, then you need to know exactly how to choose them. There are several categories of potatoes that are grown in nurseries and vegetable gardens. Garden crops include tubers of the first, second and third reproduction.
How to prepare the soil for planting
First of all, you need to choose fertile soil for planting potatoes. The darker it is, the more fertile. The thickness of the fertile layer should be 30 cm. In the process of plowing the soil, it is very important to plow it exactly to this depth, without touching the podzol. It is better to plow the land in autumn, while fertilizing the soil with organic compounds. As for mineral fertilizers, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers can be used to replenish the soil, which are very difficult to wash out by rains.
In the springtime of the year, the soil needs to be harrowed and loosened. When the soil ripens, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced into it. After carrying out all the preparatory work, the entire area must be leveled with a rake.
Preparation of planting material
Preparing potatoes for planting, first of all, consists in germinating the tubers. This is done in several ways:
- Germination in the light at a temperature of 12-14 degrees. The germination period in this way is 25 days.
- Germination of tubers in a humid environment. This can be peat, sawdust, sand or manure.
In order for the potatoes to germinate well, they need to be laid out in one row, in a well-lit place. It is desirable that the room in which the potatoes are germinated has good ventilation. Germination can also be carried out in plastic bags. Initially, small holes need to be made in these bags. Further, tubers are laid in them and placed in a well-lit room.
To prevent damage to the sprouts, care must be taken to keep the tubers out of direct sunlight. As for the germination of potatoes in a humid environment, in this case, a lighted room is not required for storage. Thus, the tubers are stacked in several layers, separated from each other by some moist material. It can be ventilated peat, humus, or wood sawdust.
Video on how potatoes are planted abroad:
When the top layer dries up a little, it is sprayed with water. This ensures the growth of strong shoots and small roots. The sprouts grown in this way take root very quickly and grow well. In order to obtain an early harvest of potatoes, tuber germination with feeding can be used. Initially, the sprouts germinate in the light.
After the formation of the first shoots, they are placed in a box with a bottom lined with peat. The top layer of potatoes is covered with sawdust and watered with clean water. The box should be stored in a room where the temperature does not exceed 18 degrees. When small roots appear, the tubers need to be fertilized with superphosphates, potassium and nitrate. You can also use wood ash.
In the process of germination of potatoes, it is often affected by scab and rhizcotinia. To prevent the development of these diseases, it is necessary to pickle the tubers with formalin. First of all, they should be immersed in a 40% formalin solution and simmer for two hours. It is advisable to do the pickling before sprouting the potatoes.
How to plant potatoes correctly?
When the planting material is completely ready, you can proceed directly to the planting itself. You need to start planting when leaves have already begun to bloom on the birches. At the same time, the depth of warming up the soil should be 9 degrees. Planting potatoes should be done to a depth of ten centimeters, with the location of the beds from north to south.
The main thing is that the pits are not located close to each other, otherwise late blight may occur. Also, densely planted potatoes cannot be spud well. The most optimal distance between the pits is 90cm.
This indentation provides not only good hilling, but also strong green tops. When planting, you need to remember that the larger the seed potatoes are, the less often the planting should be. Regardless of the chosen planting scheme, the depth of the tubers should be the same in any case. You also need to remember that you do not need to grow the same variety for more than four years. All planting material must be updated periodically.
How to cut potatoes for planting
Seed potatoes must be cut in order to increase the yield. Each of the cut halves yields an 87% yield. For planting, the potatoes must be cut lengthwise to conserve whole tubers. In order to increase the yield, two halves of potatoes are immediately planted in one hole. Also, cutting of the planting material is often done due to its lack.
Cut tubers grow faster. It is always very important to remember that it is better not to cut some varieties, as they can drastically reduce the yield. For such varieties, you need to use other methods of propagation. These groups of potatoes include Baritone, Courage, Lileya, Yubilyar, etc. Today, experienced gardeners do not recommend cutting the potatoes when planting. After all, if a diseased tuber gets under cutting, then with the help of a knife the disease will spread to all planting material.
Therefore, if you had to cut potatoes, then the knife that will be used for cutting must be periodically disinfected. Cutting potatoes should be done in the spring just before planting. Also, in the fall, you can make small cuts on the potato, and in the spring, just break it. The weight of potatoes for cutting must be at least 70g.