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Most amateur gardeners are increasingly growing grapes on their backyards. Novice gardeners should know that in order to get a good harvest, the vineyard must be constantly looked after. The spring period is the most important, since it is at this time that the vine "wakes up" and begins to sprout green shoots.
- Why is it important to care for your vineyard in spring
- When to open the vineyard
- Complex of agrotechnical measures
Why is it important to care for your vineyard in spring
The most important time for gardeners and gardeners is spring. The development of the vineyard, fruiting and the quality of the harvest depends on proper care at this particular time. If you do not provide favorable conditions for the plant after wintering, then some problems may arise when growing the crop. The bush will develop poorly, the leaves will bloom slowly and fungal diseases may appear.
Even before the buds bloom, juice is released on the cuts of the vine - this is the period of sap flow. If the roots of the plant are damaged by frost, then the "cry" is slow or it may not be at all. In case of excessive "crying", the plant should be properly pruned. Otherwise, untimely pruning and abundant sap flow can negatively affect the development of the vine and completely lead to drying out.
Vineyard care activities begin at the end of February. The timing may vary for each region. With the onset of spring, the bushes are opened to awaken the roots.
When to open the vineyard
It is recommended to open covered varieties when the air temperature is above 10 degrees. Each vine should be opened gradually and preferably in the morning to avoid sunburn. In the southern regions, the best time for this is April, and for the northern regions, May.
If the probability of spring frosts is high, then it is undesirable to remove the covering material so as not to damage the root system. It is necessary to make small holes for air access. After opening, the bush should be treated with Bordeaux liquid (3%) or iron sulfate (5%). So you can delay the swelling of the kidneys and get rid of fungal diseases, mold.
It should be remembered that the long-term presence of the vine under cover at a positive temperature negatively affects the plant. Gardeners on such days remove the shelter, dry the vine, and then cover it again until a stable positive temperature.
Complex of agrotechnical measures
The main activities for the care of the vine in the spring:
- Pest control
- Top dressing
Video about caring for grapes:
The first step is to trim those varieties that are not under cover. You need to start this procedure in March. Any dried, broken shoots must be removed. Pruning should be done with a well-sharpened garden tool - a pruner. The cut must be made 3-4 cm above the eye and along the internode.
Last year's vine is also pruned. Only the inner shoot should be left on the replacement knot. Places of cuts are treated with garden varnish. In the future, in order for the fruits to receive a sufficient amount of light, it is necessary to cut off the leaves that shade the brushes.
To protect the plants from possible diseases and pests, the grapes are sprayed after pruning. For this purpose, chemical or biological preparations are used. Many gardeners do not use chemicals for processing, as they believe that the use of such berries will cause poisoning. However, such funds will not bring any harm to the body.
The only thing, if safety rules are not followed, you can get poisoning from inhaled chemical vapors.
From biological products to protect plants from pests, Bordeaux liquid, nitrfen, oxychom, karbofos are used. One of the solutions should be sprayed not only on the leaves, but also on the root zone. To obtain the best and most versatile varieties of the vineyard, graft on an old bush. The procedure is carried out after the swelling of the kidneys. You can do it in several ways: in a split, butt, butt, by copulation, on a separate root.
The grafting stalk is harvested in the fall. It should have 4 kidneys. A couple of days before the procedure, it is necessary to soak the cuttings in water, adding a growth stimulator. The first time the grapes are fertilized with compost or manure. Fertilizer can be immediately placed under a bush or prepared slurry. In order for the root system to better absorb fertilizers, it is necessary to make a small groove around 40 cm deep.
The first feeding is carried out after the snow has completely melted. The second feeding is performed during the growing season, which falls in mid-May. For this, superphosphate (20 g), ammonium nitrate (15 g), potassium (5 g) are used. Mix all components and dilute in 10 liters of water. This amount of fertilizer is needed for each bush.
Foliar dressing is actively used by many gardeners. They use a special mineral fertilizer that is sprayed on the vineyard foliage. With proper care of the vine in the spring, you can grow a rich harvest and avoid possible problems when growing grapes.