One famous writer said: "When I hear the word 'chrysanthemum', I see a graceful lady with a wistful smile, dressed in luxurious, white furs." Indeed, white, lush chrysanthemums look like noble ladies, and multi-colored medium-sized chrysanthemums look like cheerful young ladies. Both are worthy of long admiration.
It is not in vain that so many poems and romances have been dedicated to them. "Chrysanthemums have faded long ago in the garden ..." But even if the chrysanthemum has finished flowering in the garden, it is easy to grow it in a pot, and it will delight with its warmth all year round. In order for the flower to be comfortable, you need to know what the homemade chrysanthemum prefers, what kind of care it needs. These issues will be covered here.
- Description of the plant
- First meeting or where to get homemade chrysanthemum
- Everything a beauty needs
- Possible difficulties
- Diseases and pests
Description of the plant
Everyone knows this plant with light green leaves, which have different shapes and are arranged alternately. This flower surprises with the variety of its species. There are perennial and annual chrysanthemums, with small and large flowers, with simple and double buds, with single flowers and with a whole basket of inflorescences, with all kinds of color palette.
This beauty can grow both outdoors and at home, content with an ordinary pot. There are a great many varieties of chrysanthemums, it is extremely difficult to list them, so it is suggested to see how these flowers are classified:
- by flower size - up to 80 mm chrysanthemums are considered small-flowered, larger than this size - large-flowered
- by tier - two-row (flower petals are located in two rows), double and semi-double
- by flowering time - early flowering, medium and late (if there is a need to obtain seeds, this information is important, late varieties do not have time to give full-fledged seeds)
- in size - up to 30 cm in height, these are border, and up to 50 cm - medium chrysanthemums
To keep the flower in home pots, varieties of low-growing chrysanthemums are used, however, the shape, color and size of the flower itself may be different. Most often, such domestic favorites grow no higher than 15-18 cm, and have luxurious foliage and rich inflorescence caps.
Such varieties as "Minimum" - low bushes with bright flowers, the "Charm" series, in which inflorescences of different colors, are in particular demand, ampelous varieties "White Cascade", "Pink Cascade" are in particular demand. Korean chrysanthemums, which form whole flower balls, are very good. These are such varieties as "Navare", "Stella".
Exclusively domestic sissies - Indian chrysanthemums, varieties "Snow Elf", "Aurora", "Helen". These varieties are bred exclusively for indoor use, ideal for pot keeping.
The first meeting or where to buy a homemade chrysanthemum
You can get hold of this blooming beauty in several ways.
- Grow from seed
- Take from friends
- Buy a flower in a specialized pavilion
The first way is the easiest. The flower itself is already visible in all its glory, all that remains is to buy it, bring it home and provide proper care. However, most often it turns out that in stores, having met a blooming beauty, they immediately buy her, not paying attention to some important factors. But it depends on them whether the flower will delight the owner for a long time or die immediately after purchase.
To rule out any troubles, when buying, you should pay attention to the following:
- All stems and leaves must be of a healthy color, be well developed, and the leaves must be in proportion on the stem.
- Yellowing, curvature of the bush, bent or twisted shoots are a sign of ill health.
- The plant must be free of insects (especially the inside of the leaf is worth looking at).
- The flower should be strong, dense, compact.
- The earth should not lag behind the walls of the pot (if this is the case, perhaps the plant has just been crossed and how it will take root is a question).
Most importantly, you should like the flower. After the plant is bought and brought into the house, you need to quarantine it, that is, put it where there are no other plants. This will protect the existing green pets from a possible disease, and it will be more convenient for a beginner to get used to it.
Everything a beauty needs
This flower requires a short daylight hours, because it is not for nothing that most varieties of open ground begin to bloom closer to autumn, when the day becomes shorter and the weather is cooler. Chrysanthemum feels most comfortable with 8-10 hour daylight hours and in the absence of strong heat.
In nature, this happens not only in autumn, but also in spring (April). Therefore, if the home beauty at this time is transferred to the balcony or loggia, then it will be able to bloom twice - in spring and autumn. You can "trick" the plant and make it bloom when you want, if you cover it with a dense cap (create a shortened daylight hours) and provide temperature conditions.
There is a clear temperature range for this flower when the plant feels as comfortable as possible.
- Winter - 3-9 degrees Celsius
- Autumn (spring) - 15-18 degrees above zero
- Summer - 20-24 degrees
If such conditions are created, the chrysanthemum will give the largest number of buds, and its flowering time will last much longer, because it will have time to rest well and gain a lot of strength. And yet, not every flower lover will rush around the house with a thermometer, and this is not necessary. Chrysanthemum tolerates some temperature fluctuations, feels great outdoors in summer and can even tolerate frosts down to -2 degrees.
If the plant was bought in a container, you should wait until it fades, and then transplant it into a new, larger pot. This means that this will require soil. The easiest way is to buy a ready-made substrate for chrysanthemums. But if you didn't manage to buy it, you can cook it yourself. For this you need:
- turf soil - 2 parts
- humus - 1 part
- leaf land - 1 part
- coarse sand - 1 part
In such a potting mix, the green pet will feel even better than in the purchased soil.
One of the main factors in the health of a flower is proper watering. Dryness will lead to wilting and the appearance of pests (spider mites), and excess moisture will contribute to root rot or the appearance of fungal diseases.
To begin with, you should put drainage in the pot so that moisture does not accumulate at the roots. Watering should be done twice a week, however, this should be done wisely.
If the room is dry and hot (batteries dry the air very much in winter), more watering is required, but if the house is cool, you should not be zealous with watering. Before watering, you should inspect the soil, if it is wet, it is not worth watering, but if the top layer is dry, watering is needed.
Tap water cannot be used for irrigation; it must be allowed to stand for at least 2 days. The water temperature should not be lower than the room temperature. To create a damp area near the flower, you need to spray the plant. This will also be a prophylaxis against spider mites.
For a luxurious flowering, the plant requires a lot of strength, but the soil is not able to provide the flower with all the necessary substances, therefore it is necessary to feed the chrysanthemum. Top dressing should start from the vein, because in the winter the plant rests.
Video on how to plant a chrysanthemum correctly:
Ready-made fertilizers can be bought at any store; the packages contain detailed instructions for use. Fertilizers are applied once every ten days.
Chrysanthemum propagation is not at all difficult. Two methods are especially acceptable:
With good care, the chrysanthemum bush grows so abundantly that 5-6 shoots can be easily separated, which very quickly form an independent plant. To do this, the shoots are simply transplanted into a separate, small pot and provide good watering. With this reproduction, a new bush begins to bloom within a few months after planting.
Cutting is also a fairly simple way. Twigs up to 10 cm in size are cut from the uterine bush, the cuts are treated with a root-forming substance (root), and then they are planted in pots and covered with a plastic cup or film. This cup will need to be cleaned up periodically to prevent mold. The cuttings quickly give rise to roots, after which the glass should be removed altogether.
Chrysanthemum does not bloom
It can be seen from the article that a certain daylight hours and the required temperature are required for flowering. That is, a flower blooms only in autumn, sometimes in spring. But if at this time the flower refuses to please with beauty, it means that mistakes were made in caring for the green pet.
Leaves wither or the plant dries
First of all, you need to check the correct watering, and then check the plant for the presence of pests. Ensure proper watering, in addition, it is very important to remove all dried leaves from the flower, otherwise the plant can be lost.
Diseases and pests
Like any living organism, chrysanthemums are susceptible to diseases and pests can bother the flower.
More than other pests, chrysanthemum leaves are loved by spider mites. After this parasite appears on the plant, the leaves turn yellow, curl up, on the inside of the leaf you can observe small black or brown dots that move. The entire infected leaf surface and even the stem are covered with fine cobwebs.
If you do not get rid of the tick, then the plant dies quickly enough. This pest does not like water very much, so the plant must be washed well with soap and water, then rinsed in the shower. This procedure should be done repeatedly. Frequent spraying is a good prevention against mites.
Gray rot. With this disease, a gray, fleecy bloom appears on the leaves. In order to get rid of the disease, it is necessary to apply a foundation.
Powdery mildew. Fungal disease, with it the leaves are covered with a gray bloom. The disease is treated with fungicides. In this disease, the pot with the plant should be set aside from other flowers.
Septoria. Appears from excessive moisture, abundant watering. Leaves with this disease are affected by brown spots. It is required to reduce watering and treat the bush with a foundation.