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How to properly graft an apple tree yourself, the timing and methods of vaccination

How to properly graft an apple tree yourself, the timing and methods of vaccination



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Getting new varieties of apple trees in the garden by grafting is not only useful, but also very interesting. With the help of grafting, you can propagate your favorite variety even with only one bud or a small stalk.

We will try to find out how to properly graft an apple tree, the timing of this event, various ways of grafting varietal apple trees.

Content:

  • What is apple grafting and why is it needed
  • How to prepare a scion, stock and tools for grafting apple trees
  • Apple grafting by copulation and improved copulation
  • Grafting apple trees by budding

What is apple grafting and why is it needed

In terms of its meaning and technique, grafting of apple trees is one of the methods of propagation of varietal plants by transplanting or transplanting part of one tree onto another. After transplanting, parts of the plants must necessarily grow together.

It is advisable to inoculate apple trees in cases when:

  • varietal plants do not survive on their own roots
  • to reduce the time for growing varietal apple trees
  • improving the assortment of apple trees in the garden
  • with a limited amount of planting material
  • growing winter-hardy plants
  • resizing of mature trees

If you do not vaccinate apple trees, then it is unlikely that you will be able to grow a fruiting apple orchard with good varietal fruits. Important! The plant that is being grafted is the stock, and the part that is transplanted is the scion. The best time for grafting apple trees is during the active movement of juices in the rootstock.

This occurs from the time the buds swell until mid-summer. For the middle zone with a temperate climate, the second half of summer and autumn are not suitable for grafting apple trees. This is due to the small number of warm and sunny days before the onset of cold weather. They are not enough for a good fusion of the rootstock with the scion.

How to prepare a scion, stock and tools for grafting apple trees

For successful transplantation, you need to prepare the grafting material, prepare both the plant - the stock, and the instrument itself for transplanting. For the vaccination, you will need special knives:

  • budding - the blade is curved, it is sharpened from both sides
  • grafting - with a straight, very sharp blade, sharpened on one side, with a strong and comfortable handle
  • garden - the blade is crooked, strong, sharp

For strapping, a transparent film is suitable, it is better to take the one that is in pharmacies and is used for compresses. In addition, you need:

  • var
  • secateurs
  • gauze or clean rags
  • water

Where to get and how to prepare a stock for an apple tree

To avoid mistakes and not to plant an incompatible scion with the stock, then in amateur gardening it is best to plant an apple tree on an apple tree. The stock can be purchased, or you can grow it yourself. The purchase of rootstock plants requires certain expenses.

It is much cheaper and safer to grow young apple trees from seeds. Usually after 1-2 years the seedlings can be used for grafting. One of the important qualities of the future stock is its frost resistance. Getting seed stocks is most beneficial for the hobby garden.

For rootstocks, you can take forest apple trees that have grown as a result of self-seeding. Chinese seeds, anise, Moscow pear seeds are also suitable. In industrial horticulture, the growth force of the rootstock is also taken into account. They are divided into:

  • dwarf
  • semi-dwarf
  • medium-sized
  • vigorous

For these purposes, clonal rootstocks are most often obtained from special varieties of apple trees. The advantage of such rootstocks is known and stable characteristics. On the eve of vaccination, the rootstocks need to be watered well.

Graft

For grafting apple trees, you can use those taken from varietal plants:

  • kidney
  • stalk
  • branch

Most often cuttings or buds are used. Cuttings for spring grafting are harvested from dormant apple trees in late autumn, late winter or early spring. The cuttings should be:

  • not thicker than a pencil
  • preferably from a one-year escape
  • from the central part of ripe shoots
  • with multiple dormant buds
  • length no more than 10 -12 cm

For summer grafting, cuttings or buds are cut on the day of grafting. To inoculate apple trees, you can use almost any of the following methods:

  • eye or kidney
  • in the butt by budding
  • copulation
  • improved copulation
  • in the side cut
  • into cleavage
  • wedge
  • per bark

Consider the most convenient ways of grafting apple trees for an amateur gardener.

Apple grafting by copulation and improved copulation

Copulation and improved copulation requires some practical skills, but works well on apple trees. For this method, you need to be able to make confident cuts. For training, you can take shoots of deren or mountain ash. When the cuts begin to turn out, you can start grafting on the apple trees.

Such training is required not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners after a long break. Important! For copulation or improved copulation, the thickness of the rootstock and the scion must be the same. For simple copulation, it is enough to make an oblique cut on the rootstock.

A cut of the same area and at the same angle is made on a graft - a scion. After that, the sections are aligned and the parts are fixed with a strapping. Improved copulation differs in that a cut is made in the central part of the stock, and a tongue of the same length is made on the handle. When combining the cuts, the tongue of the scion should fit tightly into the incision on the rootstock.

After that, the grafting is fixed with a strapping. Many gardeners cut cuttings before grafting are dipped in water, to which honey or sugar is added in the proportion of one teaspoon to 100 ml of water.

The survival rate of vaccinations with improved copulation is 25% higher than with simple copulation. These apple grafting methods are used from mid-April to mid-May.

Grafting apple trees by budding

Grafting by budding apple trees is carried out in the summer. For this, a peephole is used, cut from an annual cutting from a tree of the desired variety. The kidney must be ripe. In central Russia, this time begins in the second half of July. It is advisable to finish grafting apple trees by budding before the end of the first decade of August.

A T-shaped incision is made on the bark of the stock. The bud is cut off with a bark shield. This flap is tucked into the incision and the graft is secured with a strap. For budding, choose the north side of the stock. It is important to make all cuts with a clean knife, if a kidney accidentally falls to the ground, you do not need to lift it, another kidney is cut off for inoculation.

Summer grafting does not require preliminary harvesting of cuttings and their storage until spring. It is important to complete summer vaccinations 50 - 55 days before the onset of persistent cold weather. Grafting apple trees is an interesting and useful business, it will help grow an apple orchard with the most delicious fruits.

Apple grafting video:


Watch the video: Graft using the grafting tool! (August 2022).