The use of conifers in landscape design is the trend of the times. The strict geometric shapes of fir and the color of the needles help to feel a sense of harmony.
- Description of Nordman fir
- Popular varieties
- Planting and care rules
- Use in landscape design
Description of Nordman fir
The distribution area of Nordman fir (Caucasian fir) is wide. The species of this coniferous plant are found in the Caucasus, in the north of Armenia and Azerbaijan, in Turkey. The climate of the mountains: its coolness and humid air is the most favorable environment, these beauties have lived there for hundreds of years.
The growth is slow for the first 10 years. After a well-developed, superficial root system is formed, the tree actively grows. The height of an adult fir is 60 m, and the trunk diameter can reach 2 m.
The crown is very decorative: dense, pubescent to the ground, shaped like a cone. Young branches are covered with light brown bark, old ones are gray with longitudinal cracks.
The trees are evergreen. The maximum length of the needles is 4 cm, the thickness is 2.5 mm. Young needles, just formed shoots, stand out with light green against the background of old branches with dark green needles.
Cones up to 20 cm long, up to 5 cm wide. They begin to form in May after flowering every two years. During the season from green to brown. Ripen by November. They produce wedge-shaped seeds of brown or yellow-brown color. The germination rate is low. Under natural conditions, the beginning of fruiting from 30-40 years, with artificial plantings after 70 years.
For decorative use, cultivars of the Caucasian fir have been bred:
- Golden spreader
- The Golden Spreader variety is a dwarf plant - a hybrid, bred to decorate rock gardens. Differs in very slow growth. By the age of 10, his growth is no more than 1 meter. The needles are of an original golden color, glossy on one side of the needles, matte on the other.
- Jadviga is a tall variety. The crown is thick. The branches are covered with long, two-colored needles. The outside is bright green, the inside is white.
- Pendula is a hybrid, grows slowly, requires care and compliance with certain growing conditions.
The variety is bred in arboretums, it can be grown in personal plots.
Planting and care rules
The idea of growing fir from seeds should be abandoned. Only specialists can do it. To decorate the garden, it is worth buying a seedling in the nursery or via the Internet. Saplings aged 5 to 10 years easily take root. Planting dates are flexible. Can be planted in spring (April) and autumn during September.
Choose the right place for planting: well-lit, free from other plantings. The distance to plants or structures is at least 3 meters. Prepare the landing pit and soil in advance. Pit dimensions: diameter - 60 cm, depth - 80 cm.To fill, prepare a soil mixture of the following composition:
- loam - 2 h
- humus - 3 h
- peat - 1 h
- coarse sand, washed - 1 h
Stir the mixture and add 1 bucket of rotted sawdust and about 200 g of fertilizers containing nitrogen to it. After planting the seedling, the root system begins to form. We are preparing good conditions for her. Pour drainage at the bottom of the pit:
- scrap brick
Pour half of the prepared soil mixture onto the bottom of the pit. After the pit has stood for several days, you can start planting. If a seedling with open roots, then put it in water before planting. During planting, spread the roots evenly along the sides of the pit, do not deepen the root collar.
Fill up the pit with the remnants of the fertile mixture. Water the seedling. At first, a young plant may be sick. In hot, sunny weather, protect it from direct sunlight. It will be easier for the fir to adapt to new conditions.
Regular watering is especially necessary in the first year after planting. The soil must be constantly moist. After five years, combine watering with top dressing. Apply specialized fertilizers for conifers. Adult plants do not need watering. The root system of the tree is able to provide the plant with moisture.
Video about planting and breeding fir:
Spring fertilizing is needed. Until the tree grows strong, the weeds can harm it. Weeding and loosening the trunk circle is an important maintenance element. You can shorten maintenance time by using mulch. Any sawdust will do. Layer thickness 10-15 cm.
The respectability of the garden depends on the beauty of the crown, its neatness. The tree does not need pruning. It is performed only for aesthetic purposes. Remove dried, damaged, gnarled branches. Timely control of coniferous pests helps to preserve the decorative effect of fir. The tree can suffer from a number of pests:
- false shields
- spider mite
- fir moth
The false shield causes the needles to dry out and turn yellow. You can save a tree from it with the help of trapping belts. It's easier to make them yourself. You need old rags and glue from the tracks. The spider mite enmeshes the branches with cobwebs, the needles are covered with rusty spots. You can fight a tick only while the tree is small. Garlic infusions help. The fir moth spoils the needles. The main type of struggle is digging the trunk circle. In addition, you can spray the young tree with insecticides.
Use in landscape design
Dwarf fir varieties adorn rock gardens. They can be planted singly or in groups on the lawn. Tall trees serve as a beautiful and functional decoration of the park alleys. On personal plots, group plantings of Caucasian fir, mountain ash, birch, maple look good.
The Nordman fir, planted on the site, will delight you with bright greenery all year round. In its shade, you can while away hot summer days, breathing in the fresh scent of pine needles. In winter, you can decorate it with garlands and cheerfully celebrate the new year right in the garden.