Beet is a fairly common plant, it is considered a valuable food product, without it it is impossible to cook delicious borscht or make a vinaigrette, it is a component of numerous dietary salads. What is this vegetable, what nutrients does it contain?
- Which family does the beet belong to?
- Description of species
- The technology of growing sugar beets, white fodder, red
- Root composition
- Beetroot - description, benefits and harms of vegetables
- Cooking applications
- Raw beets, boiled, beet juice - as used in folk medicine
What family does it belong to
The classification of plants is dealt with by the section of botany, taxonomy. She describes the relationship between species and gives them names. Plants are combined into groups according to the degree of kinship and subdivided according to the structure of the flower, seed, the presence of certain organs and tissues, according to some other characteristics.
In modern science, plants are classified as follows: kingdom - type - department - class - order - family - genus - species (variety). The genus Beet belongs to the Amaranth family and is subdivided into several varieties.
Description of beet species
The plant is subdivided into 13 species, of which only 2 are cultivated:
An annual or biennial with a fibrous or tap root system. The root is thickened and branched, the leaves are wide and large with fleshy petioles.
There are 3 types:
- Fodder - large smooth root crops weighing about 10 kg. They come in different colors and shapes. Juicy unsweetened vegetable. Leaves are medium or large.
- Sugar beets are white beets with a cone-shaped, rough root vegetable. It has a white, dense core with a lot of sugar and little juice.
- The dining room is a vegetable with dark red roots.
The dining room is also subdivided into 3 types:
- vindifolia: green leaves and stalk, branched cone-shaped roots;
- rubrifolia: red leaves, spherical or conical roots with a dark red core;
- atrorubra: dark red roots, dark green leaves with a red petiole.
The most common, 3rd variety has 4 varieties:
- Egyptian: flattened root vegetables weighing up to 0.5 kg with a rich red peel, a core with a purple tint, small dark green leaves in the shape of a heart with scarlet veins and a handle.
- Bordeaux: spherical or oval-shaped roots, burgundy core, long green leaves with a pinkish petiole.
- Eclipse: dark red ball-shaped roots, light green leaves with red petioles.
- Erfurt: dark red, elongated, branched roots with a lot of sugar and dry matter, green leaves with burgundy veins and cuttings.
Each plant variety has many varieties and hybrids with characteristic features.
To achieve a good harvest, you need to properly prepare the beds. The vegetable does not like acidic soil. He prefers light and loose soil, consisting of sand, turf and humus. The land is also fertilized with peat. Preference should be given to the beds on which cucumbers, potatoes or cabbage used to grow.
You should not plant the plant in the same place for two years in a row.
Propagated by seeds. Before planting, the seed should be decontaminated and revitalized. To do this, it is placed in a warm manganese solution for 30 minutes, then wrapped in a damp cloth and left in a warm place for 48 hours.
Disembarkation is carried out in spring, when the temperature is 15-18 0С. Mid- and late-ripening varieties are planted in late spring. Some species are planted in late autumn.
Vertical or horizontal narrow grooves with a depth of 3 cm are made in the garden bed. A distance of 40 cm is left between the rows. The seeds are laid out in the grooves every 20-30 cm and covered with soil.
In cold climates, seeds are first planted in a greenhouse or in boxes. After the appearance of 2-3 leaves, the plants are transferred to open ground.
Proper maintenance consists of regular watering, weeding and loosening. During the active growth phase, plants are watered twice a week in the morning or evening, then watering is reduced to 1 time per week. Soil moistening is stopped 14 days before harvesting. The wet earth is loosened.
Several seedlings grow from each seed. For the best yield, they are thinned out, removing weak and damaged shoots.
After the first thinning, the plantings are fertilized with minerals. In the middle of the season, ammonium nitrate and potassium salt are added. To prevent softening, root crops are fed with manganese and boron.
You cannot fertilize a plant with manure. Otherwise, its taste and useful properties will suffer.
Beets are rich in beneficial trace elements. It contains vitamins A, C, E, PP, vitamins of group B. The vegetable contains sodium, potassium, fluorine, chlorine, phosphorus, calcium, zinc and iron, etc.
The energy value of root crops is 42 kcal. The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is 1.5 g / 0.1 g / 8.8 g.
Beetroot, the benefits and harms of vegetables
It is difficult to overestimate the benefits of root crops and plant tops. Due to its rich chemical composition, the vegetable has a beneficial effect on the health of the body.
Consuming it helps to cleanse the intestines and destroy putrefactive bacteria.
Betaine in the vegetable regulates fat metabolism, normalizes liver function and increases blood pressure. In addition, the substance prevents the development of cancer.
Magnesium is useful for hypertensive patients and patients with atherosclerosis. Iodine is indispensable in the fight against thyroid diseases.
The product removes excess water from the body, relieves pain and fights infections. Eating a vegetable regularly can help fight depression. Beetroot juice saves you from a hangover.
Folic acid in the root vegetable is useful during pregnancy. She is involved in the formation of the fetal nervous system. In addition, the substance helps to strengthen hair and nails, and rejuvenates the skin.
Sodium maintains water-salt balance. It has a beneficial effect on the activity of nerves, kidneys and muscles.
The chemical composition of the plant promotes healthy hematopoiesis. Eating a vegetable is an excellent prevention of anemia.
Due to its low calorie content, the plant is recognized as a dietary product. Due to the laxative and diuretic effect of the vegetable, excess weight on the beet diet goes away quickly.
Surprisingly, the beneficial properties are the same for both raw beets and boiled beets. Most of the trace elements are not destroyed by heat treatment.
There are a number of conditions in which the consumption of a vegetable should be limited:
- urolithiasis disease;
- chronic diarrhea.
All parts of the plant are used for food, the tops are used for making soups and green salads. Root vegetables are eaten raw, as well as boiled, fried, stewed, baked. Freshly squeezed beet juice is tasty and healthy.
Boiled vegetables have a milder flavor. For cooking, the roots are placed in cold water and put on medium heat. The cooking time is 2.5 hours.
To speed up the process, put the beets in boiling water. In this case, it will be ready in an hour.
For frying, the vegetable is cut into strips and left on the fire for 15 minutes, stirring constantly. In a double boiler, the root vegetable is cooked for a little over half an hour. Unpeeled root vegetables are steamed. So they retain a maximum of nutrients.
Beet stewing time - 30 minutes. for the old harvest, and 15 min. for fresh.
Root pigment is used as a natural and harmless dye.
Raw beets, boiled, beet juice - as used in folk medicine
Thanks to its beneficial properties, the plant is a popular component of grandmother's recipes for many diseases.
Fresh juice is used as a choleretic agent. It improves metabolism and keeps the face fresh and beautiful. In case of ear pain and pinching of the facial nerve, the agent is instilled into the ears. Instillation in the nose saves from a cold. With the help of juice, remove warts and heal cracks after frostbite.
For the treatment of hepatitis, radish juice is used in half with beetroot juice. In case of oncology, the agent is taken half a glass, pre-infused in the refrigerator, and then heated.
Boiled leaves are eaten for heartburn. They are also used as compresses to remove freckles. Gruel from the tops is applied to burns, lichen and sore eyes to eliminate infection. Fresh leaves are tied to the forehead for headaches.
Fresh pulp gruel is applied to ulcers and inflamed areas. A slice of fresh beetroot relieves toothache. For diseases of the liver and biliary tract, they eat 100 grams. raw grated root vegetable in the morning.
Poultices help with lice. Ingestion saves from constipation and hypertension. Beets boiled to syrup are an excellent remedy for cholelithiasis.
Beetroot is a product with a unique chemical composition. It is affordable and easy to grow.
Due to its excellent taste and useful properties, the vegetable has found application in cooking and folk medicine. Regular consumption of beets helps maintain health and beauty.
Let's watch an interesting video and find out all the secrets of growing a healthy root crop: