The common bird cherry is a tree that is popularly known as the "beautiful bride". Every year, with the arrival of spring, the plant is covered with amazing and fragrant white flowers, which resemble the snow-white wedding dress of the bride.
- Description of the common bird cherry and its photo
- Types and popular varieties of bird cherry
- Bird cherry tree - planting and care
- How bird cherry is propagated
- Diseases and pests of the tree
- The benefits of cherry fruits
Description of the common bird cherry and its photo
As you know, among animals, the wolf is considered the orderly of the forest, but among plants, this place of honor is occupied by the bird cherry. Certain parts of the tree are used with great success in traditional medicine.
The berries and foliage of the plant have a fairly strong aroma, which is endowed with phytoncidal qualities. It helps to destroy various harmful insects and microorganisms that cause diseases.
Bird cherry can be attributed to both trees and large shrubs. Its average height is about 7 meters. But there are trees reaching 17 - 18 meters. The trunk of the plant is often curved and has the shape of an arc directed towards the ground. The trunk diameter is not large and reaches a maximum of half a meter. The stem bark is dark brown, slightly cracked, has red and burgundy spots.
The color of the bird cherry foliage depends on its age.
The young has a lighter and fresher green hue, while the old has a faded green. It resembles an egg in shape, only slightly larger from 5 to 25 cm in length, while the width is at least 6 cm.
The beginning of flowering of the plant can be observed towards the end of May. Depending on the variety, the color of the flowers can range from pure white to pink or even red.
Wood with its dispersed-vascular structure is quite often used for the production of handicrafts necessary in everyday life. Things of this kind are in demand and have a certain value, since the wood from which they are made is famous for its special viscosity and elasticity.
Of particular interest to humans are the fruits of the plant, which ripen around the end of August - mid-September. The collected, properly dried, and then crushed fruits are used in the process of baking pies or pies, and also added to yeast dough for baking bakery products.
Berries are also an indispensable component for cooking jelly and compotes. They make excellent homemade liqueurs, wines, liqueurs. Also, their use is often mentioned in traditional medicine recipes.
The fruits of the bird cherry are round in shape, their structure is fleshy. In color, they are mostly black, but depending on the variety they can be red. Their diameter is approximately 1 cm. The taste of the fruits is quite sweet and astringent, but they have a slightly noticeable bitter tint.
Types and popular varieties of bird cherry
In nature, there are about 20 species of bird cherry. However, in our territorial zone there are only four.
The most common of them is the common bird cherry, which is also called carpal or bird cherry.
It gained such popularity due to its high degree of frost resistance, unpretentious care, rapid growth and rich harvest.
Thanks to the breeders, the Tenderness variety appeared, which is in special demand among almost all gardeners because of the special taste of the fruit. A distinctive feature of the plant are bright red flowers of a relatively small size, the flowering of which occurs in combined clusters of a fairly large size.
The height of Tenderness hardly reaches 4 meters. The crown diameter is about 4 meters. The crown has the shape of a pyramid. The branches are arranged unusually, for this type of plant, densely. The aroma that appears during flowering is surprisingly pleasant.
Fruits of Tenderness are medium in size but very sweet. Representatives of this variety need a well-moistened soil. It is advisable to plant them in shaded areas.
Ideal for decorating your backyard. Quite often it is used to create landscape design.
In addition to the varieties planted for an edible harvest, breeders have bred decorative varieties that are usually used exclusively for decorating a personal plot.
Bird cherry tree - planting and care
It is not at all difficult to grow an ordinary bird cherry on your own plot. It is enough to familiarize yourself with some of the rules of planting and growing.
Planting of this variety must be organized in a place with sufficient sunlight and space in which the plant could develop unhindered.
To obtain a rich and tasty harvest, experienced gardeners are advised to plant several different varieties of this crop. Their flowering should take place at approximately the same period. This will provide the seedlings with cross-pollination.
It is also worth noting that when planting several seedlings, the distance between them, without fail, must be at least 5 meters.
It will be better if the soil for planting has a neutral or slightly acidic pH. Soil moisture should be moderate.
The size of the pit for planting should not be much larger than the size of the rhizome itself. With regard to the application of fertilizers of mineral and organic origin, there should be a minimum of them. When applying more fertilizers, the state of the stem bark can deteriorate sharply.
Planting and leaving naturally implies timely, high-quality and correct watering. When planting, the seedling is well watered. Further watering should occur during the growing season, no more than three times for the entire period. It is possible to increase the number of watering only in case of drought.
The trunk circle, without fail, is covered with peat or sawdust mulch.
Planting is carried out either in the spring or in the fall. Special care for bird cherry is not needed. But, do not forget about the timely seasonal weeding of the soil around the seedling.
This sanitary measure is mainly aimed at removing intermittent weeds. At the same time, weeding will help to loosen the soil and thereby provide oxygen access to it.
All gardeners know that the land tends to be periodically depleted. Therefore, it is necessary to feed the latter in a timely manner. Fertilizers of organic and mineral origin can be added both when digging and when watering.
For feeding, you can use ready-made mixtures, specially designed for these purposes. The purchase of fertilizing for fruit and berry plants is best done in a specialized store.
Removing the offspring of the rhizome
When growing, do not forget about the fight against thickening. This procedure is carried out in the summer. It consists in removing the appearing offshoots of the rhizome from time to time. The number of cuttings will depend entirely on the growth rate of the shoots.
You will also need periodic pruning. The first is done immediately after planting in the ground to form the correct crown. In the first year of pruning, the lower, that is, the first tier of the plant will be formed. Over the next years, the entire crown will be formed by trimming the skeletal branches.
Every year with the onset of autumn, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning. This procedure is aimed at removing branches with the presence of various disease-causing formations, dried up for some reason or broken.
How bird cherry is propagated
Bird cherry is a plant that reproduces without any problems. Therefore, gardeners, if they wish, can get young seedlings for sale or to increase the number of plants in their area. Reproduction can be done in several ways.
Produced exclusively in the spring by the method of separating coppice shoots and planting the separated material in their new place of growth.
After the complete growth of the shoots, they are cut off. The resulting cuttings, in length, should not exceed 15 cm. The foliage is cut off on them, leaving only a couple of the upper ones. Then they are placed in water for a day. At the end of the time, they are ready to land. Planting is carried out in a nutritious soil under a film.
This method is applicable only in spring. The shoots that have grown from the root are buried in pre-prepared and correctly located holes. Until the end of spring and all summer, the shoots are weeded from weeds and periodically fertilized. In the fall, they can already be cut off from the root.
Those shoots in which the root system turned out to be stronger and more developed are ready for transplantation to a permanent place of growth.
You can grow common bird cherry and using seeds. But, it's worth noting right away that this option will take a lot of time. That is why it is considered the most troublesome.
Diseases and pests of the tree
This type of fruit and berry plants has a fairly high immunity to diseases of various kinds and pests as well. But, it will not be superfluous to familiarize yourself with those that can appear and harm both the tree itself and its fruits.
This disease of fungal origin is known to all gardeners. It is expressed in the formation of a whitish color on the surface of the leaves. The most correct way to deal with it is to collect and destroy all fallen and damaged leaves.
It will not be superfluous to spray a sick tree with a Bordeaux mixture. Spraying must be carried out several times.
It manifests itself exclusively on leaves, with red spots of various shapes and sizes. Without timely elimination, it can lead to early fall of all foliage, which will have a very detrimental effect on the condition of the entire tree as a whole.
Treatment is carried out by analogy with the fight against powdery mildew.
With regards to pests that interfere with the active growth and fruiting of the tree, they are mainly insects that feed on tree sap, actively eating the deciduous part, a large variety of ticks and bark beetles.
For their extermination, treatment with karbofos will be required, which must be carried out at least twice. In cases where the damage to the tree by insects is strong enough, the treatment can be carried out more times.
Young seedlings, both as a treatment and as a prophylaxis, are best treated with tobacco infusion or soap solution.
The benefits of cherry fruits
Modern medicine recognizes fully ripe berries as a raw material for the creation of drugs aimed at treating various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
The main value of the berries is the tannins and the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin, which in a certain concentration actively fights against tumors.
Traditional medicine also actively uses the fruit to treat the stomach and eliminate diarrhea. But, besides this, you can find recipes for combating other diseases and using not only berries, but also other parts of common bird cherry that are no less useful for the human body.
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