Phalaenopsis is a type of orchid that is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention. There are several methods of plant propagation in home greenhouses, each of which has a number of characteristics.
- How Phalaenopsis reproduce in nature and at home
- Reproduction of Phalaenopsis by roots
- How to propagate Phalaenopsis orchids with a leaf
- Reproduction of orchids by peduncles
- Features of reproduction by children, the use of hormonal paste
- Is it possible to propagate orchids by seeds
- We create favorable conditions for the reproduction of Phalaenopsis
How Phalaenopsis reproduce in nature and at home
An important feature of the flower is the fact that it has no lateral branches, and therefore there is only one growth point, while other orchids have several.
In addition, Phalaenopsis also does not have pseudobulbs, like other species, and the orchid can reproduce only through cuttings from the meristem, seeds and children.
Under natural conditions, there are several breeding options:
- Through spreading the pollen of the seed capsules, or with the help of insects. It is important to remember that flower seeds cannot germinate on their own. To grow, they need soil fungi, which provide the orchid with the carbon needed for the seed to germinate and develop;
- Through layering and babies that are formed on an adult plant after the flowering period directly on the peduncle.
- In the wild, both methods are equally effective, but at home, planting with seeds is one of the most difficult methods.
- For the education of children, the flower must be provided with the most comfortable, close to natural conditions.
Reproduction of Phalaenopsis by roots
This method is not in high demand, but it has a certain popularity. So in the process of transplanting an orchid, you can carefully separate a part of the root with a length of at least 5 cm and place it in a separate container.
It is recommended to keep the seedling in greenhouse conditions until the first leaves are formed. To ensure the right balance of lighting, moisture and temperature, use a plastic bag or a regular bottle that covers the seedling.
After planting, you need to place the mini-greenhouse in a warm place with diffused light.
It is possible to transplant the resulting orchid into a new container only after its roots have reached a length of 5-7 cm.
Since this method is not usual for Phalaenopsis, the percentage of success of this method does not differ in height.
That is why novice gardeners should not choose this option, but give preference to planting children or flower stalks.
How to propagate Phalaenopsis orchids with a leaf
A fairly common question is: is it possible to propagate Phalaenopsis using a leaf? Some plants take root when planted with leaves, but this does not apply to this species.
If the leaf breaks off without a bud or part of the stem, reproduction is impossible. However, if it has a kidney (meristem) at its base, you can try to plant it.
For this you need:
- Place the leaf petiole in a separate substrate;
- Water liberally and cover with a plastic bag or cropped bottle, creating a greenhouse environment;
- Place in a warm, well-lit place.
- If there was a bud on the petiole, with proper care, it will begin to grow. However, in the absence of a meristem, reproduction is impossible.
Reproduction of orchids by peduncles
In case the mother plant is affected by pests or has suffered from a disease, the peduncle planting method can be used.
For this you need:
- Carefully, with clean scissors, cut off the peduncle;
- Place it in a container half filled with soft, previously purified water with a coal tablet dissolved in it;
- In order for the orchid to grow, you need to awaken the dormant bud. To do this, you must carefully cut off the rounded scales that cover the kidney and lubricate it with cytokinin ointment;
- Make sure that the temperature of the room in which the cut peduncle is located does not exceed 25-28 C. If this regime is not observed, there is a risk of developing not a shoot, but a new peduncle;
- Change the water in the container once a week.
It is not recommended to separate the process immediately after the formation of the first leaves. It is necessary to wait until the root of the shoot reaches 3-5 cm, and the number of leaves is 3-4. After this is achieved, you can cut off the process along with a piece of the peduncle and plant it in a transparent container. In this case, the pot should not be located in direct sunlight.
Features of reproduction by children, the use of hormonal paste
The most common breeding method for Phalaenopsis is to seat the children. However, this option also has several conventions that should be taken into account.
The main ones are:
- The orchid must come out of the flowering phase, be absolutely healthy;
- The age of the plant cannot exceed one and a half to two years.
- If both indicators are met and the flower is suitable for planting, you must first of all pay attention to the sequence of events. So, it is recommended:
- In February (the optimal time) to start stimulating the development of the kidney;
- Place the plant pot on the east or west side. In this case, the leaves should be shaded so that the light touches only the peduncle;
- Regulate the temperature regime: during the day - 27 C, at night - 16 C;
- Reduce the intensity of watering to the minimum required;
- Stop making additional fertilizing before the beginning of the development of the kidney.
If these conditions are met, the kidney wakes up after a month. It is important to catch this moment in time, because the plant will need a change in care.
An orchid needs:
- Place in a shaded, but warm place so that the bright rays of the sun do not fall on the appendix;
- Water at the same frequency as before the start of the kidney stimulation activities;
- Before the shoot grows up enough, it is recommended to apply foliar fertilizers, then you can switch to root dressing;
- After the roots and leaves of the shoot have reached their optimal size, as in the case of planting with a peduncle, it must be separated from the main plant and moved to a separate container.
Another well-known and rather simple way of reproduction of Phalaenopsis is the use of cytokinin paste. The best time to use it is the beginning of spring or the last month of winter. It is connected with the fact that it is at this time that the concentration of energy in the flower is maximum.
To stimulate the process of growth and formation of the kidney with the help of this substance, it is recommended:
- With a pre-peeled knife, carefully scratch the outer part of the flower stem;
- Apply paste to a fresh scratch. To do this, you can use a toothpick or a pointed match;
- If it is necessary to stimulate the incipient kidney, it is necessary to cut off the scale and apply a paste to the cut site;
- Kidney awakening occurs on the 10-20th day.
When using the drug, it is worth remembering that an insufficient amount of it can provoke the development of not a bud, but a flower. In addition, it is recommended to store the drug in the refrigerator.
After the size of the leaves and roots of the shoot reaches the norm, it must be planted in a separate container. It should not be placed in places that are too brightly lit.
Is it possible to propagate orchids by seeds
Using seeds for planting orchids at home is one of the most time consuming methods.
The main difficulty of the method is that:
- The slightest fluctuation in temperature, exposure to pathogens and other deviations can lead to the death of the embryo;
- The lack of endosperm, which would nourish the embryo and protect the seed from the negative effects of the environment, makes the seeds vulnerable;
- The seeds of the plant are very small. They are very difficult to see with the naked eye.
- For growing Phalaenopsis at home, you can either pollinate the plant yourself or purchase ready-made seeds. Since the former requires special dexterity, there is no need to take risks.
Since in the natural environment the development of the embryo occurs through the action of soil fungi, after receiving the seeds, it is necessary to start preparing a nutrient substrate:
- Take 10-20 grams of previously purchased agar-agar, two teaspoons of glucose and fructose;
- Mix agar-agar with 200 ml of distilled water and leave for a while;
- Add the resulting mass to hot water, then add glucose, fructose and a small amount of orthophosphate acid with calcium carbonate;
- Stir the resulting mixture until a homogeneous mass is obtained.
For growing seeds, it is recommended to prepare glass tubes with stoppers in advance. If these are not at hand, you can use small jars with lids, which can be tightly sealed.
One of the most important conditions for preparing the medium for sowing is its sterilization. So, for a start, it is recommended to sterilize the containers themselves, and then pour a nutrient substrate (30-50 ml) into them.
After that, place the jars in a water bath and set aside for six days. This will help ensure that decontamination is successful.
If mold has formed in the containers, planting seeds is prohibited.
For planting seeds, it is recommended:
- Cover the seeds with a 1% bleach solution. Shake for 3-5 minutes, let the mixture stand for the remaining 15 minutes;
- After mixing, place the flasks with seeds in a saucepan of hot water for a few minutes. It is recommended to fix the flasks on a grid;
- After disinfection, carefully transfer the seeds to the culture medium containers. Cork the jars tightly and place in the greenhouse. The first shoots will appear in six months;
- After germination, it is necessary to prepare a mixture of 50 ml of heated water and a few drops of a 1% solution of Fundazole. Place the germinated seeds in the resulting mixture for 15-20 minutes;
- Sprouted seeds are recommended to be planted with a narrow brush alternately in a container with nutritious soil (a mixture of moss and bark). A small amount of crushed charcoal tablets and fern roots can be added to the substrate.
Within six months, the seedlings can be transplanted into "adult soil". A significant disadvantage of this method, in addition to laboriousness, is the fact that such plants will be able to bloom only for 4-7 years.
We create favorable conditions for the reproduction of Phalaenopsis
The most favorable conditions for the reproduction of Phalaenopsis are:
- Air humidity is 50 - 80%. At the same time, spraying is not recommended, as it can provoke a flower disease. A small amount of gravel poured under a container with a flower can provide normal moisture levels;
- The optimum temperature is from 28 to 300C. It is worth remembering that orchids do not tolerate a drop in temperature very well;
- Lighting - diffused light is the best option;
- Watering - to stimulate the development of children, watering is recommended to be reduced. So in the summer, it is worth pouring the plant every 3-4 days, and to activate the development of the kidney, it is recommended to reduce the regularity;
- Soil - must be air permeable. You can use boiled pine bark mixed with charcoal;
- Fertilizers - it is recommended to pay special attention to nitrogen fertilization during the growing season.
If you follow all the rules and recreate the most favorable conditions for plants, the issue of reproduction will not be a problem.
The complexity of the reproduction of Phalaenopsis at home directly depends on the method chosen. So, when planting an orchid with seeds, you will have to spend a lot of time and effort to achieve a result.
At the same time, planting with children or a peduncle is possible even for a novice gardener.
Let's watch an interesting video on how to properly divide a phalaenopsis bush: