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What concerns mineral fertilizers, their classification, composition, application


For the cultivation of any plant crops, it is necessary to apply fertilizers and fertilizers to the ground. Metals and their salts are usually found in mineral nutritional mixtures.

They are also complex and simple. Let's figure out what belongs to mineral fertilizers and find out the rules for their use.

Content:

  1. What products of the chemical industry are classified as mineral fertilizers
  2. Classification of mineral fertilizers, types
  3. Advantages and disadvantages of using
  4. Complex mineral fertilizers
  5. What are the advantages of complex mineral fertilizers

What products of the chemical industry belong to mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers are inorganic compounds enriched with useful substances designed to provide plants with the elements necessary for their growth and development. They include all kinds of substances, mainly in the form of mineral salts.

Depending on the composition of useful compounds, they are usually divided into complex and simple.

Multilateral, or complex, in their composition contain several main components, and unilateral, or simple, contain only one substance.

Usually, the soil contains most of the micro and macro elements necessary for growth and fruiting, however, it is not uncommon for a lack of certain substances to negatively affect the development of cultivated plants.

This phenomenon is often due to the type of soil, for example:

  • sandy most often contains little magnesium
  • peat - molybdenum
  • black soil - manganese

Classification of mineral fertilizers, their types

This category of dressings is divided:

  • by the content of nutrients present in the composition: simple - containing one macroelement - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and complex, which simultaneously include several macronutrients, the amount of which is usually expressed as a percentage, for example: potassium - 18%, phosphorus - 14%, nitrogen - 26%;
  • by the state of aggregation. They can be solid, liquid or gaseous. In addition, solids are divided into granular, crystalline, powdery;
  • by the volume of active ingredients - low up to 25%, medium up to 60% and high over 60% concentration.

Nitrogen

Fertilizers of this type are necessary for plants for the synthesis of vitamins and chlorophyll. Lack of nitrogen is manifested by the loss of foliage of intense color. They brighten, the shoots stop growing, the leaves become smaller.

During the growing season, plants absorb nitrogen unevenly. During this period, they need a lot of nitrogen. Excess of this element during a drought causes damage to plants.

Lack of nitrogen leads to a decrease in frost resistance, and an excess in autumn helps to prolong the vegetative period, which harms the plants.

The use of nutrient mixtures of mineral origin, with a high nitrogen content, promotes the development of foliage and stems in plants, which is very important in spring.

The ability to dissolve easily allows them to be used for spraying plants or applying granules directly to the soil.

Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are classified into:

  • nitrate - representing sodium or calcium nitrate, which are used to enrich acidic soils with useful substances, are well suited for plants with short ripening periods - salads, radishes. Excess active substances accumulate inside the fruit;
  • ammonium - ammonium sulfate - is introduced in the fall, and in the spring you can plant onions, cucumbers, tomatoes on these beds - the result will be excellent.

Farmers and private traders often use fertilizers of such types as:

  • amide - urea - contains the most nitrogen in its composition, helps to increase yields. Application to the ground is required. It is useful to process tomatoes with it during the growth and ovary of fruits;
  • ammonium nitrate - ammonium nitrate - with the addition of potassium and phosphorus, increase the yield of grain and root crops, especially beets and potatoes.

Potash

This type of fertilizer is made from a mineral - sylvinite. Potassium provides the movement of carbohydrates, promotes the assimilation of carbon dioxide from the air. With a lack of potassium, there is a decrease in resistance to disease.

To increase the immunity of plants, improve taste, increase the shelf life of fruits, potassium is needed. The most commonly used is potassium chloride, which is of natural origin. It is made from ore.

The composition contains chlorine ions that are harmful to some types of plants. To avoid negative effects, it is used in the fall.

Has a positive effect on potatoes, beets, buckwheat, barley.

The complex combination of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium increases yields.

Apply:

  • potassium salt, with a high content of this mineral. It must be brought in in the fall. This is best done in areas where cereals and potatoes will be planted in the spring;
  • potassium nitrate - containing nitrogen, useful during ovary and fruit ripening;
  • potassium sulfate is used for any plants, especially root crops.

Phosphoric

Phosphorus helps plants withstand drought and frost. Thanks to him, plants accumulate proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The lack of this element leads to disturbances in protein metabolic processes.

Fertilization of plants with phosphorus must be done at the time of germination, it is also needed during fruiting. Such types of fertilizers must be applied in combination with humus.

Mineral nutritional mixtures containing phosphorus are obtained as a result of ore processing, from waste of the metallurgical industry, from animal bones.

Simple superphosphate is sulfuric acid with apatite or phosphate rock. The fertilizer contains gypsum. It is not found in double superphosphate. Trees and berry crops need this chemical element. Its use helps to speed up the process of fruit setting, increase frost resistance.

Use phosphorus fertilizers:

  • simple superphosphate - poured onto the surface of the earth during flowering. Ideal for flower crops;
  • phosphate rock - is introduced into acidified soils. It shows itself perfectly when feeding vegetables and crops. Provides plants with phosphorus for a long time;
  • double superphosphate is used for flower and berry crops. It is used in the fall to increase frost resistance.

Microfertilizers

Mineral fertilizers supplemented with trace elements. The soil often contains a low content of molybdenum, copper, manganese. Treatment of seeds with mineral micronutrients will help to get rid of the deficiency of iron or zinc.

It is important to comply with the standards that are indicated on the packaging.

The use of such funds contributes to the active development of the root system, increased immunity, and accelerated growth.

Microfertilizers are classified by active substances:

  • complex - a composition that contains several substances at the same time. They help to increase yields, resistance to pests;
  • copper - are introduced into wetlands, contain copper pyrite and vitriol;
  • boric - help to activate the development of plants, boric acid, borax are present in the composition;
  • molybdenum - used to fertilize forest soils, the active substance is molybdenum-acid ammonium.

Advantages and disadvantages of using

The main feature that distinguishes organic fertilizers from mineral fertilizers is the digestibility of nutrients. The fact is that organic ones take a very long time to decompose. This requires microorganisms that are in the soil. These types of nutritional mixtures have a beneficial effect over a long period of time.

The beneficial elements found in mineral fertilizers do not need to be processed by the soil microflora and plants are absorbed directly. Therefore, the effectiveness of their application is quite fast. Only substances in this category are capable of causing harm by killing soil microorganisms that live in the soil and contribute to its fertility.

In addition, this type of supplement is not fully absorbed by plants. Residues are often washed out of the ground, end up in the air or groundwater, sometimes contaminating them to a large extent.

Excess nitrogenous compounds that have entered the groundwater lead to the rapid development of various vegetation in reservoirs. This reduces the concentration of oxygen in the water leads to the death of fish, waterlogging of water bodies.

In addition, the use of mineral additives contributes to a change in acidity, compaction, soil erosion, the accumulation of compounds that are unusual for plants, the leaching of magnesium and calcium compounds negatively affects the amount of humus.

Be that as it may, but these supplements are quite useful.

The advantages of using them are as follows:

  • supplements are moderately priced, relatively few are needed;
  • a noticeable increase in yield;
  • help to improve the taste and appearance of grown products;
  • plants become more resistant to diseases and pests;
  • the crop is well stored;
  • available to any user;
  • do not create storage problems.

When using mineral dressings, you must remember that:

  • it is better to use organic fertilizers. When it is not possible to purchase them, you can produce them yourself - composting;
  • you need to carefully monitor the amount of nutrient mixtures introduced;
  • it is necessary to alkalize the earth along with fertilization;
  • manufacturers' recommendations should be followed;
  • try to use tools that are less harmful.

It follows from this that an excessive amount of nutrients can harm not only plants, but also the earth, groundwater, air, which is dangerous for people.

To avoid such troubles, you need to take a responsible attitude to the process of making them.

Mineral complexes

This group includes agents with multilateral action, in their composition there are simultaneously two, or more, active components.

Complex mineral additives can solve various problems - increase yields, destroy weeds, pests, improve the quality of flowers.

The group includes:

  • ammophos, which is a nitrogen-phosphorus additive. Effective when applied under shrubs, various vegetable crops. Flowers respond very well to its use - they actively increase the green mass, begin to flourish;
  • diammofoska - in the composition of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, trace elements. Top dressing helps to fight pests, is used for all types of plants.

The introduction of complex nutrient mixtures by workers of agricultural enterprises is carried out by fertilizer seeders, and summer residents scatter them by hand in spring or autumn.

Usually such complex additives are added:

  • nitroammophoska - suitable for applying to different types of soil, under various plants. Alumina is fertilized in autumn, sandy - in spring, before plowing;
  • nitrophoska - suitable for tomatoes, improves their taste, increases fruit size. Used in spring, during the growing season. Promotes increased disease resistance of cucumbers.

What are the advantages of using complex mineral fertilizers

Nutritional mixes are widely used due to their positive qualities:

  • high content of nutrients, low or no sodium, chlorine and others;
  • one granule contains all the useful components at once;
  • relatively low costs for insertion, transportation, storage;
  • effective even with low moisture content;
  • it is possible to use for feeding crops that are sensitive to an increase in osmotic pressure inside the soil.

The use of fertilizers helps to obtain agricultural products of excellent quality, but we must not forget that everything is good in moderation.

After all, their surplus can cause irreparable harm to the environment and people.

We offer you to watch an interesting article on how to understand the types of mineral fertilizers and choose the right ones for your garden:


Watch the video: Lecture 35: Fertilizers (December 2021).