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The most important thing in planting potatoes is meeting the early sowing dates. Compliance with the deadlines contributes to the formation of a powerful root system and well-developed tops, which will invariably lead to a high yield.
Well-developed plants tend to tuber quickly and reach full maturity. This is an essential factor for early harvest with minimal losses accompanying late harvest.
- Principles of selection of planting material
- Principles for calculating the norms of planting material
- Principles for determining planting density
- Principles for determining the timing of planting
Potatoes, as a valuable food product, occupy a dominant place among agricultural crops. Not a single table is complete without his presence, as in an independent form: baked, boiled, fried potatoes; and as a component of the main and auxiliary, for the preparation of side dishes, salads and soups.
Principles of selection of planting material
The basic principle of planting a crop is the correct calculation of the potato seeding rate. A modern summer resident, equipped with various types of innovative technology, often cannot make the correct calculation of the material required for planting. The careful selection of material for planting consists of several points:
- Use of undamaged, smooth and healthy tubers for seed production.
- Sorting of planting material into coarse, medium and fine fractions *.
- Calculation of potato seeding rates.
Note: * when sorting potatoes by size, remember that the amount of planting material is directly proportional to the size of the tuber.
Principles for calculating the norms of planting material
As an example, let's calculate the potato sowing rate on one hundred square meters of land or one hundred square meters:
- the size of the rectangular area is: 12.5m in length and 8m in width;
- the beds are placed in the direction from south to north;
- the plot contains 10 rows; distance between rows - 80 cm; the length of each bed is 125 m;
- when planting, the distance between tubers is 10 cm from each other;
- each tuber should weigh an average of 200-300 g and contain at least 5 eyes.
We make calculations:
- row length (125 cm) multiplied by 10 planting rows, you get 1250 pieces;
- 1250 pcs. need to be divided into 5 eyes, as a result we get 250 tubers.
Conclusion: for one hundred square meters of land, the potato sowing rate is the number - 250 tubers.
Calculation of potato seeding rates on large cultivated areas is carried out in a similar way. To calculate the planned yield, the number of seed tubers planted on an area of 1 ha is multiplied by the average weight of potatoes.
Example: The average weight of a planting tuber is approximately 60 g or 0.06 kg. 65 thousand tubers are sown per hectare of area. The planned yield per hectare will be: 65,000 x 0.06 = 3.9 tons per hectare.
To calculate the optimal rates and the amount of the expected harvest, many farmers use special pivot tables. The tables have been compiled by the agricultural services. They calculate not only the norms and planned yield depending on the varieties planted, but also make forecasts of the market value of the finished crop in relation to the cost of seed.
Principles for determining planting density
When plants planted in a certain area receive sufficient moisture and nutrition, form a powerful root system and leaf cover, fully use solar energy, then this is called the optimal planting density.
When planting potatoes, soil fertility is taken into account. The higher the fertility rate, the more potato tubers can be planted on the site. Consequently, due to additional planting of potato crops, there is the possibility of obtaining a larger yield.
There are norms for the optimal planting density per hectare, depending on the region:
- Northern and North-Western regions - from 50 to 55 thousand bushes;
- Central and Southern regions - depending on the constituent soils: on sandy loam and sandy soils about 45 thousand bushes, on loamy up to 55 thousand bushes.
Principles for determining the timing of planting
Germination of potato tubers begins at a soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm, only + 3 + 5C. The process enters the active phase at an optimum soil temperature of + 6 + 8C. This temperature in spring is reached within a week.
With early planting, it is possible to increase the yield of potatoes by up to 30% compared to late planting.
As a conclusion:
- It is very important to determine the start time of planting potato crops and the varietal sequence of seeding.
- When cultivating potatoes by a mechanized method, both the optimum temperature and the arable ripeness of the soil are taken into account.
- Early maturing, mid-early and mid-maturing varieties are planted first. It is advisable to plant sprouted tubers.
- Varietal potatoes for industrial purposes are planted last.